Oscar Stanton De Priest
|Oscar Stanton De Priest|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 1st district
March 4, 1929 – January 3, 1935
|Preceded by||Martin B. Madden|
|Succeeded by||Arthur W. Mitchell|
March 9, 1871|
|Died||May 12, 1951
|Resting place||Graceland Cemetery|
|Spouse(s)||Jessie De Priest|
|Children||Laurence W. De Priest
Oscar Stanton De Priest, Jr.
Oscar Stanton De Priest (March 9, 1871 – May 12, 1951) was an American lawmaker and civil rights advocate who served as a U.S. Representative from Illinois from 1929 to 1935. He was the first African American to be elected to Congress from outside the southern states and the first in the 20th century.
De Priest was born in 1871 in Florence, Alabama, to freedmen, former slaves. He had a brother named Robert. His mother, Martha Karsner, worked part-time as a laundress, and his father Neander was a teamster associated with the "Exodus" movement. After the Civil War, thousands of blacks escaped continued oppression in the South by moving to other states that offered greater freedom, such as Kansas. In 1878, the De Priests left for Dayton, Ohio, after the elder De Priest had to save his friend, former U.S. Representative James T. Rapier, from a lynch mob, and another black man was killed on their doorstep.
In Salina, Kansas, De Priest studied bookkeeping at the Salina Normal School. In 1889 he moved to Chicago, Illinois, where he worked as an apprentice plasterer, house painter, and decorator, and eventually became a successful contractor and real estate broker. He went on to build a fortune in the stock market and in real estate by helping black families move into formerly all-white neighborhoods. From 1904 to 1908, he was a member of the board of commissioners of Cook County, Illinois. He was elected to the Chicago City Council, serving from 1915 to 1917 as alderman from the 2nd Ward. He was Chicago’s first black alderman.
In 1919, De Priest ran unsuccessfully for alderman as a member of the People's Movement Club, a political organization he founded. In a few years, De Priest's became the most powerful of Chicago's many black political organizations, and he became the top black politician under Chicago Republican mayor William Hale Thompson.
In 1928, when Republican congressman Martin B. Madden died, Mayor Thompson selected De Priest to replace him on the ballot. He became the first African American elected to Congress in the 20th century, representing the 1st Congressional District of Illinois (the Loop and part of the South Side of Chicago) as a Republican. During his three consecutive terms (1929–1935) as the only black representative in Congress, De Priest introduced several anti-discrimination bills.
His 1933 amendment barring discrimination in the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was passed by the Senate and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. A second anti-lynching bill failed, even though it would not have made lynching a federal crime. A third proposal, a bill to permit a transfer of jurisdiction if a defendant believed he or she could not get a fair trial because of race or religion, was passed by a later Congress.
Civil rights activists criticized De Priest for opposing federal aid to the poor, but they applauded him for speaking in the South despite death threats. They also praised De Priest for telling an Alabama senator he was not big enough to prevent him from dining in the Senate restaurant, and for defending the right of students of the black Howard University to eat in the House restaurant. De Priest took the House restaurant issue to a special bipartisan House committee.
In a three-month-long heated debate, the Republican minority argued that the restaurant's discriminatory practice violated 14th Amendment rights to equal access. The Democratic majority skirted the issue by claiming that the restaurant was not open to the public, and the House restaurant remained segregated.
In 1929, De Priest made national news when first lady Lou Hoover invited his wife, Jessie, to a tea for congressional wives at the White House. He also appointed Benjamin O. Davis Jr. to the U. S. Military Academy at a time when the army had only one African-American line officer (Davis's father).
By the early 1930s, De Priest's popularity waned because he continued to oppose higher taxes on the rich and fought Depression-era federal relief programs. De Priest was defeated in 1934 by Democrat Arthur W. Mitchell, who was also an African American. He was again elected to the Chicago City Council in 1943 as alderman of the 3rd Ward and served until 1947. He died in Chicago at 80 and is buried in Graceland Cemetery.
Oscar married the former Jessie L. Williams (c. 1873 – March 31, 1961). This union produced two sons: Laurence W. (c. 1900 – July 28, 1916). and Oscar Stanton De Priest, Jr. (May 24, 1906 – November 8, 1983)
- Stokes-Hammond, Shelley. "Pathbreakers: Oscar Stanton DePriest and Jessie L. Williams DePriest". The White House Historical Association. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Black Americans in Congress". United States: Office of History and Preservation, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
- Taylor, Julius F. (1922-05-13). "The Broad Ax" (34). Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "‘A Tempest In a Teapot’ The Racial Politics of First Lady Lou Hoover’s Invitation of Jessie DePriest to a White House Tea". The White House Historical Association. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "Cook County (IL) Clerk's Office Death Index (Jessie L. De Priest) [database on-line]". Chicago, Illinois: Cook County (IL) Clerk. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "Cook County (IL) Clerk's Office Death Index (Laurence W. De Priest) [database on-line]". Chicago, Illinois: Cook County (IL) Clerk. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "Social Security Death Index [database on-line]". United States: The Generations Network. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "Cook County (IL) Clerk's Office Death Index (Oscar S. De Priest) [database on-line]". Chicago, Illinois: Cook County (IL) Clerk. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Day, S. Davis. "Herbert Hoover and Racial Politics: The De Priest Incident". Journal of Negro History 65 (Winter 1980): 6-17
- Nordhaus-Bike, Anne. "Oscar DePriest lived Pisces's call to service, unity." Gazette, March 7, 2008.
- Olasky, Martin. "History turned right side up". WORLD magazine. 13 February 2010. p. 22.
- Rudwick, Elliott M. "Oscar De Priest and the Jim Crow Restaurant in the U.S. House of Representatives". Journal of Negro Education 35 (Winter 1966): 77-82.
- Oscar Stanton De Priest at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- National Park Service
- History, Art & Archives, U.S. House of Representatives, “DE PRIEST, Oscar Stanton,”
- Pathbreakers: Oscar Stanton DePriest and Jessie L. Williams DePriest - A biographical sketch written by Shelley Stokes-Hammond posted by The White House Historical Association.
|United States House of Representatives|
Martin B. Madden
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 1st congressional district
Arthur W. Mitchell