|By mouth (hard capsules)|
|Protein binding||42% (parent drug), 3% (active metabolite)|
|Metabolism||Hepatic, to oseltamivir carboxylate|
|Biological half-life||1-3 hours, 6-10 hours (active metabolite)|
|Excretion||Urine (>90% as oseltamivir carboxylate), faeces|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||312.4 g/mol|
|3D model (Jmol)|
|(what is this?)|
Oseltamivir, sold under the brand name Tamiflu, is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and influenza B (flu). Many medical organizations recommend its use in people who have complications or are at high risk of complications within 48 hours of first symptoms of infection. They recommend its use to prevent infection in those at high-risk but not the general population. The CDC recommends that clinicians use their discretion to treat those at lower risk who present within 48 hours of first symptoms of infection. It is taken by mouth, either as a pill or liquid.
Recommendations regarding oseltamivir are controversial as are criticisms of the recommendations. A Cochrane review concluded that oseltamivir does not reduce hospitalizations, and that there is no evidence of reduction in complications of influenza. Two meta-analyses have concluded that benefits in those who are otherwise healthy do not outweigh its risks. They also found little evidence regarding whether treatment changes the risk of hospitalization or death in high risk populations. However, another meta-analysis found that oseltamivir was effective for prevention of influenza at the individual and household levels.
Common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and trouble sleeping. Other side effects may include psychiatric symptoms and seizures. Oseltamivir has been taken by a small number of pregnant women without signs of problems. In the United States use is recommended if influenza occurs during pregnancy. Dose adjustment may be needed in those with kidney problems.
Oseltamivir was approved for medical use in the United States in 1999. It was the first neuraminidase inhibitor available by mouth. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. A generic version was approved in the United States in 2016. The wholesale cost in the developing world in 2014 was about US$4.27 per day. In the United States a course of treatment cost US$138.70 as of December 2016.
- 1 Medical use
- 2 Side effects
- 3 Resistance
- 4 Mechanism of action
- 5 Pharmacokinetics
- 6 History
- 7 Veterinary use
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Oseltamivir is used for the prevention and treatment of influenza caused by influenza A and B viruses. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medications needed in a basic health system. Oseltamivir's risk-benefit ratio is controversial.
The United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Public Health England and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend the use of oseltamivir for people who have complications or are at high risk for complications. This includes those who are hospitalized, young children, those over the age of 65, people with other significant health problems, those who are pregnant, and Indigenous peoples of the Americas among others. The Infectious Disease Society of America takes the same position as the CDC.
A systematic review of systematic reviews in PLoS One did not find evidence for benefits in people who are at risk, noting that "the trials were not designed or powered to give results regarding serious complications, hospitalization and mortality", as did a 2014 Cochrane review. The Cochrane review nonetheless recommended: "On the basis of the findings of this review, clinicians and healthcare policy-makers should urgently revise current recommendations for use of the neuraminidase inhibitors (NIs) for individuals with influenza."
The CDC, ECDC, Public Health England, Infectious Disease Society of America, the AAP, and Roche (the originator) reject the conclusions of the Cochrane review, arguing in part that the analysis inappropriately forms conclusions about outcomes in people who are seriously ill based on results obtained primarily in healthy populations, and that the analysis inappropriately included results from people not infected with influenza. The EMA did not change its labelling of the drug in response to the Cochrane study.
A review in the New England Journal of Medicine recommended that all people admitted to intensive care units during influenza outbreaks with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia receive oseltamivir until the absence of influenza infection is established by PCR testing.
A 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis found that oseltamivir was effective at treating the symptoms of influenza, reducing the length of hospitalization, and reducing the risk of otitis media. The same review found that oseltamivir did not significantly increase the risk of adverse events. A 2016 systematic review found that oseltamivir slightly reduced the time it takes for the symptoms of influenza to be alleviated, and that it also increased the risk of "nausea, vomiting, [and] psychiatric events in adults and vomiting in children."
Two 2013 meta-analyses have concluded that benefits in those who are otherwise healthy do not outweigh its risks. When the analysis was restricted to people with confirmed infection, a Cochrane review found unclear evidence of change in the risk of complications such as pneumonia, while three other reviews found a decreased risk. Together, published studies suggest that oseltamivir reduces the duration of symptoms by 0.5–1 day. Any benefit of treatment must be balanced against side effects, which include psychiatric symptoms and increased rates of vomiting.
A 2014 Cochrane Collaboration review concluded that oseltamivir did not affect the need for hospitalizations, and that there is no proof of reduction of complications of influenza (such as pneumonia) because of a lack of diagnostic definitions, or reduction of the spread of the virus. There was also evidence that suggested that oseltamivir prevented some people from producing sufficient numbers of their own antibodies to fight infection. The authors recommended that guidance should be revised to take account of the evidence of small benefit and increased risk of harms.
The United States and European Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Public Health England, Infectious Disease Society of America, and the American Academy of Pediatrics, and Roche (the originator) rejected the recommendations of the 2014 Cochrane review to urgently change treatment guidelines and drug labels.
The CDC does not recommend the general use of oseltamivir for prevention due to concerns that widespread use will encourage resistance development. They recommend that it be considered in those at high risk who have been exposed to the disease within 48 hours but have not received or only recently received the flu shot. They also recommended it during outbreaks in long term care homes and in those who are significantly immunosuppressed.
Reviews conclude that when used for prevention oseltamivir decreases the risk of people exposed developing symptomatic disease. A systematic review of systematic reviews found low to moderate evidence that it decreases the risk of getting symptomatic influenza by 1% to 12% (a relative decrease of 64 to 92%). It recommended against its use in healthy, low risk persons due to cost, the risk of resistance development, and side effects. It concluded it might be useful for prevention in high risk persons who had not been vaccinated.
Common adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with oseltamivir therapy (occurring in over 1 percent of people) include nausea and vomiting. In adults, oseltamivir increased the risk of nausea for which the number needed to harm was 28 and for vomiting was 22. So, for every 22 adult people on oseltamivir one experienced vomiting. In the treatment of children, oseltamivir also induced vomiting. The number needed to harm was 19. So, for every 19 children on oseltamivir one experienced vomiting. In prevention there were more headaches, kidney, and psychiatric events. Oseltamivir's effect on the heart is unclear: it may reduce cardiac symptoms, but may also induce serious heart rhythm problems.
Postmarketing reports include liver inflammation and elevated liver enzymes, rash, allergic reactions including anaphylaxis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, abnormal heart rhythms, seizure, confusion, aggravation of diabetes, and haemorrhagic colitis and Stevens–Johnson syndrome. The incidence of these adverse outcomes is unknown, and a causative role for oseltamivir has not been established.
The U.S. and EU package inserts for oseltamivir contain a warning of psychiatric effects observed in post-marketing surveillance. The frequency of these appears to be low and a causative role for oseltamivir has not been established. The 2014 Cochrane review found a dose-response effect on psychiatric events. In trials of prevention in adults one person was harmed for every 94 treated. Neither of the two most cited published treatment trials of oseltamivir reported any drug-attributable serious adverse events.
It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category B in Australia, meaning that it has been taken by a small number of women without signs of problems and in animal studies it looks safe. Dose adjustment may be needed in those with kidney problems.
The vast majority of mutations conferring resistance are single amino acid residue substitutions (His274Tyr in N1) in the neuraminidase enzyme. Meta-analysis of 15 studies found a pooled incidence rate for oseltamivir resistance of 2.6%. Subgroup analyses detected higher incidence rates among influenza A patients, especially for H1N1 subtype influenza. It was found that a substantial number of patients might become oseltamivir-resistant as a result of oseltamivir use, and that oseltamivir resistance might be significantly associated with pneumonia. In contrast, zanamivir resistance has been rarely reported to date. In severely immunocompromised patients there were reports of prolonged shedding of oseltamivir- (or zanamivir)-resistant virus, even after oseltamivir treatment was stopped.
H1N1 flu or "Swine flu"
The CDC found sporadic oseltamivir-resistant 2009 H1N1 virus infections had been identified, including with rare episodes of limited transmission, but the public health impact had been limited. Those sporadic cases of resistance were found in immunosuppressed patients during oseltamivir treatment and persons who developed illness while receiving oseltamivir chemoprophylaxis.
During 2011 a new influenza A(H1N1)2009 variant with mildly reduced oseltamivir (and zanamivir) sensitivity was detected in more than 10% of community specimens in Singapore and more than 30% of samples from northern Australia.
While there is concern that antiviral resistance may develop in people with haematologic malignancies due to their inability to reduce viral loads and several surveillance studies found oseltamivir-resistant pH1N1 after administration of oseltamivir in those people, as of November 2013 widespread transmission of oseltamivir-resistant pH1N1 has not occurred.
Resistance to oseltamivir was widespread in seasonal flu from 2007–2009. In the 2007–2008 flu season, the US CDC found 10.9% of H1N1 samples (n=1,020) to be resistant. In the 2008–2009 season, the proportion of resistant H1N1 increased to 99.4%. Other seasonal strains (H3N2, B) showed no resistance. All oseltamivir-resistant strains maintained sensitivity to zanamivir.
Resistance to oseltamivir has been low in seasonal flu from 2009–2012. In the 2010–2011 flu season, the US CDC reported maintained oseltamivir sensitivity in 99.1% of H1N1, 99.8% of H3N, and 100% of Influenza B. As of January 2012, the US and European CDCs were reporting sensitivity to oseltamivir for all seasonal flu samples tested since October 2011. In the US in the season 2013–2014 only 1% of 2009 H1N1 viruses have shown resistance to oseltamivir. No other influenza viruses have shown resistance to oseltamivir.
Three studies have found resistance in 0%, 3.3%, and 18% of subjects. In the study with the 18% resistance rate, the subjects were children, many of whom had not been previously exposed to influenza and therefore had a weakened immune response; the results suggest that higher and earlier dosing may be necessary in such populations.
In 2007, Japanese investigators detected neuraminidase-resistant influenza B virus strains in individuals having not been treated with these drugs. The prevalence was 1.7 percent. According to the CDC, as of October 3, 2009[update] no influenza B strains tested have shown any resistance to oseltamivir.
H5N1 Avian influenza "Bird flu"
H274Y and N294S mutations that confer resistance to oseltamivir have been identified in a few H5N1 isolates from infected patients treated with oseltamivir, and have emerged spontaneously in Egypt.
H7N9 Avian influenza
There was emergence of oseltamivir-resistant virus with the Arg292Lys mutation in two patients among 14 adults infected with A(H7N9) during treatment with oseltamivir.
Mechanism of action
Oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor, serving as a competitive inhibitor of the activity of the viral neuraminidase (NA) enzyme upon sialic acid, found on glycoproteins on the surface of normal host cells. By blocking the activity of the enzyme, oseltamivir prevents new viral particles from being released through the cleaving of terminal sialic acid on glycosylated hemagglutinin and thus fail to facilitate virus release.
Its oral bioavailability is over 80% and is extensively metabolised to its active form upon first-pass through the liver. It has a volume of distribution of 23-26 litres. Its half-life is about 1–3 hours and its active metabolite has a half-life of 6–10 hours. It is predominantly eliminated in the urine as the active carboxylate metabolite (>90% of oral dose).
Oseltamivir was discovered by scientists at Gilead using shikimic acid as a starting point for synthesis; shikimic acid was originally available only as an extract of Chinese star anise but by 2006 30% of the supply was manufactured recombinantly in E. coli. Gilead exclusively licensed their relevant patents to Roche in 1996. The drug does not enjoy patent protection in Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and several other countries. The patents for oseltamivir began to expire in 2016.
In 1999 the FDA approved oseltamivir phosphate for treatment of influenza in adults based on two double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. In June 2002 EMA approved oseltamivir phosphate for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza. In 2003 a pooled analysis of 10 randomised clinical trials concluded that oseltamivir reduced the risk of lower respiratory tract infections resulting in antibiotic use and hospital admissions in adults.
Oseltamivir (as Tamiflu) was widely used during the H5N1 avian influenza epidemic in Southeast Asia in 2005. In response to the epidemic, various governments – including those of the United Kingdom, Canada, Israel, United States, and Australia – stockpiled quantities of oseltamivir in preparation for a possible pandemic and there were worldwide shortages of the drug, driven by the high demand for stockpiling. In November 2005, U.S. President George W. Bush requested that Congress fund US$1 billion for the production and stockpile of oseltamivir, after Congress had already approved $1.8 billion for military use of the drug. Defense Secretary Rumsfeld recused himself from all government decisions regarding the drug.
In 2006 a Cochrane review raised controversy by concluding that oseltamivir should not be used during routine seasonal influenza because of its low effectiveness.
In December 2008, the Indian drug company, Cipla won a case in India's court system allowing it to manufacture a cheaper generic version of Tamiflu, called Antiflu. In May 2009, Cipla won approval from the WHO certifying that its drug Antiflu was as effective as Tamiflu, and Antiflu is included in the WHO list of prequalified medicinal products.
In 2009 a new A/H1N1 influenza virus was discovered to be spreading in North America. In June 2009 WHO declared the A/H1N1 influenza a pandemic. NICE, the CDC, WHO, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention maintained their recommendation to use oseltamivir.
From 2010 to 2012 Cochrane requested the full clinical study reports of their trials from Roche, which did not provide them, but in 2011 a freedom of information request to the European Medicines Agency provided Cochrane with the clinical study reports from 16 Roche oseltamivir trials. In 2012 the Cochrane team published the interim version of the Cochrane review based on EMA’s incomplete clinical study reports, but in 2013 Roche released 77 full clinical study reports of oseltamivir trials, after GSK released the data on zanamivir studies. In 2014 Cochrane published an updated review based solely on full clinical study reports and regulatory documents.
There have been reports of oseltamivir's reducing disease severity and hospitalization time in canine parvovirus infection. The drug may limit the ability of the virus to invade the crypt cells of the small intestine and decrease gastrointestinal bacterial colonization and toxin production.
- "Tamiflu - Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- Davies, BE (April 2010). "Pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir: an oral antiviral for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza in diverse populations." (PDF). The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 65 Suppl 2: ii5–ii10. doi:10.1093/jac/dkq015. PMC . PMID 20215135.
- "Oseltamivir Phosphate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- "CDC Online Newsroom - "Have You Heard?" Archive: 2014 - Influenza A Variant Virus". www.cdc.gov. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2 Jun 2014). "New and updated evaluations of neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza published".
- "Amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir for the treatment of influenza". www.nice.org.uk. NICE. 25 February 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- "IDSA : IDSA Continues to Recommend Antivirals for Influenza". Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Brownlee, Shannon (19 February 2013). "Tamiflu: Myth and Misconception". The Atlantic. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Butler, Declan (2014). "Tamiflu report comes under fire". Nature. 508 (7497): 439–440. doi:10.1038/508439a. PMID 24759392.
- Coenen, B; Van Puyenbroeck, K; Verhoeven, V; Vermeire, E; Coenen, S (2013). Jefferson, Tom, ed. "The value of neuraminidase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of seasonal influenza: a systematic review of systematic reviews". PLoS ONE. 8 (4): e60348. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...860348M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060348. PMC . PMID 23565231.
- Ebell, MH; Call, M; Shinholser, J (April 2013). "Effectiveness of oseltamivir in adults: a meta-analysis of published and unpublished clinical trials". Family practice. 30 (2): 125–33. doi:10.1093/fampra/cms059. PMID 22997224.
- Okoli, George N.; Otete, Harmony E.; Beck, Charles R.; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.; Schmidt, Robert Lane (9 December 2014). "Use of Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Rapid Containment of Influenza: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual and Household Transmission Studies". PLoS ONE. 9 (12): e113633. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113633. PMC . PMID 25490762.
- Wang K, Shun-Shin M, Gill P, Perera R, Harnden A (2012). Harnden A, ed. "Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in children (published trials only)". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 4: CD002744. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002744.pub4. PMID 22513907.
- Jefferson, T; Jones, M; Doshi, P; Spencer, EA; Onakpoya, I; Heneghan, CJ (Apr 9, 2014). "Oseltamivir for influenza in adults and children: systematic review of clinical study reports and summary of regulatory comments.". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 348: g2545. doi:10.1136/bmj.g2545. PMC . PMID 24811411.
- "Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) Use During Pregnancy". www.drugs.com. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- Agrawal, R; Rewatkar, PV; Kokil, GR; Verma, A; Kalra, A (Jul 2010). "Oseltamivir: a first line defense against swine flu.". Medicinal chemistry (Shariqah (United Arab Emirates)). 6 (4): 247–51. PMID 20843284.
- "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- "The FDA approves first generic version of widely used influenza drug, Tamiflu". FDA. 4 August 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- "Oseltamivir". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- "NADAC as of 2016-12-07 | Data.Medicaid.gov". Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- Tamiflu label Linked from Drugs@FDA Label history page
- "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- "Influenza Antiviral Medications: Summary for Clinicians". cdc.gov. December 3, 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- Committee On Infectious Diseases; American Academy of Pediatrics (September 2014). "Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2014–2015". Pediatrics. 134 (5): e1503–19. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-2413. PMID 25246619.
- Public Health England (November 2014). "The use of antivirals for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza: PHE summary of current guidance for healthcare professionals" (PDF).
- Jefferson T, Jones MA, Doshi P, Del Mar CB, Hama R, Thompson MJ, Spencer EA, Onakpoya I, Mahtani KR, Nunan D, Howick J, Heneghan CJ (2014). "Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 4 (4): CD008965. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008965.pub4. PMID 24718923.
- "Researchers, regulators and Roche row over stockpiled drug Tamiflu | Reuters".
- Musher DM, Thorner AR (October 2014). "Community-acquired pneumonia". N. Engl. J. Med. 371 (17): 1619–28. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1312885. PMID 25337751.
- Qiu, S; Shen, Y; Pan, H; Wang, J; Zhang, Q (2015). "Effectiveness and safety of oseltamivir for treating influenza: an updated meta-analysis of clinical trials.". Infectious Diseases (London, England). 47 (11): 808–19. PMID 26173991.
- Heneghan, CJ; Onakpoya, I; Jones, MA; Doshi, P; Del Mar, CB; Hama, R; Thompson, MJ; Spencer, EA; Mahtani, KR; Nunan, D; Howick, J; Jefferson, T (May 2016). "Neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza: a systematic review and meta-analysis of regulatory and mortality data.". Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England). 20 (42): 1–242. doi:10.3310/hta20420. PMID 27246259.
- Holzinger, F; Beck, S; Dini, L; Stöter, C; Heintze, C (16 May 2014). "The diagnosis and treatment of acute cough in adults". Deutsches Arzteblatt international. 111 (20): 356–63. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2014.0356 (inactive 2017-01-18). PMID 24882627.
- Hernan, M. A.; Lipsitch, M. (15 June 2011). "Oseltamivir and Risk of Lower Respiratory Tract Complications in Patients With Flu Symptoms: A Meta-analysis of Eleven Randomized Clinical Trials". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 53 (3): 277–279. doi:10.1093/cid/cir400. PMC . PMID 21677258.
- Dobson, Joanna; Whitley, Richard J; Pocock, Stuart; Monto, Arnold S (January 2015). "Oseltamivir treatment for influenza in adults: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". The Lancet. 385 (9979): 1729–37. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62449-1. PMID 25640810.
- Burch J, Corbett M, Stock C, et al. (September 2009). "Prescription of anti-influenza drugs for healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Lancet Infect Dis. 9 (9): 537–45. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70199-9. PMID 19665930.
- "Drug Approval Package: Tamiflu (Oseltamivir Phosphate) NDA# 021087".
- Jackson, RJ; Cooper, KL; Tappenden, P; Rees, A; Simpson, EL; Read, RC; Nicholson, KG (January 2011). "Oseltamivir, zanamivir and amantadine in the prevention of influenza: a systematic review.". The Journal of infection. 62 (1): 14–25. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2010.10.003. PMID 20950645.
- "Roche - Doing now what patients need next" (PDF).
- Rossi S, editor. Australian Medicines Handbook 2006. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook; 2006.
- Cohen, D. (9 April 2014). "Oseltamivir: another case of regulatory failure?". BMJ. 348 (apr09 8): g2591–g2591. doi:10.1136/bmj.g2591.
- "Pediatric safety update for Tamiflu". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
- Waknine, Yael (2006). "Tamiflu May Be Linked to Risk for Self-Injury and Delirium". Medscape. Retrieved 17 May 2008.
- "Prescribing medicines in pregnancy database". Australian Government. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Thorlund, Kristian; Awad, Tahany; Boivin, Guy; Thabane, Lehana (2011). "Systematic review of influenza resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitors". BMC Infectious Diseases. 11 (1): 134. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-134. PMC . PMID 21592407.
- "Update on oseltamivir resistance to influenza H1N1 (2009) viruses" (PDF). World Health Organization (WHO). December 15, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2010.
- "Antiviral Drug Resistance among Influenza Viruses Guidance on the Use of Influenza Antiviral Agents (Current for the 2013–14 Influenza Season)". CDC. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
- Hurt, A.C. (9 June 2011). "Increased detection in Australia and Singapore of a novel influenza A(H1N1)2009 variant with reduced oseltamivir and zanamivir sensitivity due to a S247N neuraminidase mutation". Eurosurveillance.
- Downing, Mark (November 2013). "Antiviral Therapy for Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Infection: Dosing, Combination Therapy, and Resistance" (PDF). National collaborating centre for infectious diseases.
- "CDC - Influenza (Flu) - 2007-08 U.S. INFLUENZA SEASON SUMMARY".
- "CDC - Influenza (Flu) - Weekly Report: Influenza Summary Update Week 53, 2008-2009 Season".
- "CDC - Seasonal Influenza (Flu) - Weekly Report: Influenza Summary Update".
- "CDC - Seasonal Influenza (Flu) - Weekly Report: Influenza Summary Update".
- "CDC Influenza Division Key Points March 28, 2014" (PDF). CDC. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Ward, P; Small, I; Smith, J; Suter, P; Dutkowski, R (February 2005). "Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and its potential for use in the event of an influenza pandemic.". The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 55 Suppl 1: i5–i21. doi:10.1093/jac/dki018. PMID 15709056.
- Hatakeyama, S.; Sugaya, N.; Ito, M.; Yamazaki, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Kimura, K.; Kiso, M.; Shimizu, H.; Kawakami, C.; Koike, K.; Mitamura, K.; Kawaoka, Y. (Apr 2007). "Emergence of influenza B viruses with reduced sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors" (Free full text). Journal of the American Medical Association. 297 (13): 1435–1442. doi:10.1001/jama.297.13.1435. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 17405969.
- McKimm-Breschkin JL Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors: antiviral action and mechanisms of resistance. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013 Jan;7(Suppl 1):25-36. doi:10.1111/irv.12047 PMID 23279894
- Hay, Alan J; Hayden, Frederick G (June 2013). "Oseltamivir resistance during treatment of H7N9 infection". The Lancet. 381 (9885): 2230–2232. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61209-X.
- "FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION" (PDF). Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Farina V, Brown JD. Tamiflu: the supply problem. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2006 Nov 13;45(44):7330-4 doi:10.1002/anie.200602623 PMID 17051628
- Rawat G; et al. (May 2013). "Expanding horizons of shikimic acid. Recent progresses in production and its endless frontiers in application and market trends". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 97 (10): 4277–87. doi:10.1007/s00253-013-4840-y. PMID 23553030.
- WIPO April 2006 Avian Flu Drugs: Patent Questions
- "Drugs at FDA: Tamiflu". FDA. Retrieved 7 December 2014.dead link
- FDA Medical Review, linked from Tamiflu Drug Approval Package
- Kaiser, L; Wat, C; Mills, T; Mahoney, P; Ward, P; Hayden, F (Jul 28, 2003). "Impact of oseltamivir treatment on influenza-related lower respiratory tract complications and hospitalizations.". Archives of Internal Medicine. 163 (14): 1667–72. doi:10.1001/archinte.163.14.1667. PMID 12885681.
- Heiberg, Marty (14 October 2005). "Oseltamivir-resistant H5N1 virus isolated from Vietnamese girl". University of Minnesota. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Shannon Brownlee and Jeanne Lenzer (November 2009) "Does the Vaccine Matter?", The Atlantic
- Jefferson, TO; Demicheli, V; Di Pietrantonj, C; Jones, M; Rivetti, D (19 July 2006). "Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (3): CD001265. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001265.pub2. PMID 16855962.
- "Cipla's anti-flu drug gets nod". Times of India. 2009-05-14. Retrieved 2009-07-29.
- Jefferson, T.; Doshi, P. (10 April 2014). "Multisystem failure: the story of anti-influenza drugs". BMJ. 348 (apr10 14): g2263–g2263. doi:10.1136/bmj.g2263.
- "WHO Guidelines for Pharmacological Management of Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) 2009 and other Influenza Viruses Revised February 2010" (PDF). WHO.
- Savigny, M. R.; MacIntire, D. K. (2010). "Use of oseltamivir in the treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis". Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. 20 (1): 132–142. doi:10.1111/j.1476-4431.2009.00404.x. PMID 20230441.
- Macintire, Douglass K. (2006). "Treatment of Parvoviral Enteritis". Proceedings of the Western Veterinary Conference. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
- Pollack, Andrew (November 5, 2005). "Is Bird Flu Drug Really So Vexing? Debating the Difficulty of Tamiflu". The New York Times.
- Wong, Y. K.; Yuen, K. Y. (January 2006). "Avian influenza virus infections in humans". Chest. 129 (1): 156–168. doi:10.1378/chest.129.1.156. PMID 16424427.
- Rohloff, J. C.; Kent, K. M.; Postich, M. J.; Becker, M. W.; Chapman, H. H.; Kelly, D. E.; Lew, W.; Louie, M. S.; McGee, L. R.; Prisbe, E. J.; Schultze, L. M.; Yu, R. H.; Zhang, L. (1998). "Practical Total Synthesis of the Anti-Influenza Drug GS-4104". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 63 (13): 4545–4550. doi:10.1021/jo980330q.
- Karpf, T. R.; Trussardi, R. (March 2001). "New, azide-free transformation of epoxides into 1,2-diamino compounds: synthesis of the anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu)". J. Org. Chem. 66 (6): 2044–2051. doi:10.1021/jo005702l. PMID 11300898.
- Abrecht, S.; Harrington, P.; Iding, H.; Karpf, M.; Trussardi, R.; Wirz, B.; Zutter, U. (2004). "The Synthetic Development of the Anti-Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor Oseltamivir Phosphate (Tamiflu®): A Challenge for Synthesis & Process Research". CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry. 58 (9): 621–629. doi:10.2533/000942904777677605.
- Yeung, H. S.; Hong, S.; Corey, E. J. (May 2006). "A short enantioselective pathway for the synthesis of the anti-influenza neuramidase inhibitor oseltamivir from 1,3-butadiene and acrylic acid". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (19): 6310–6311. doi:10.1021/ja0616433. PMID 16683783.
- Tse, N.; Cederbaum, S.; Glaspy, J. A. (Oct 1991). "Hyperammonemia following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation" (Free full text). American journal of hematology. 38 (2): 140–141. doi:10.1002/ajh.2830380213. ISSN 0361-8609. PMID 1951305.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
- Official website
- MedlinePlus Drug Information: oseltamivir (systemic) –Last Revised – 05/01/2009 Advice for the Patient
- Pharmasquare – Tamiflu Mode of Action – Flash animation showing the mode of action of oseltamivir
- FDA information page on oseltamivir
- Flu Drugs FAQ – U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
- Reto U. Schneider: The race to develop GS4104 – A comprehensive feature story about the development of Tamiflu published in January 2004 in NZZ-Folio, the magazine of the daily Neue Zürcher Zeitung in Switzerland (translated from German).