Osmanlıspor was founded as "Ankara Belediye Spor Kulübü" (Ankara Municipality Sport Club) in 1978. The club has undergone several name changes throughout its history. In 1984, they were renamed "Ankara Büyükşehir Belediye Spor Kulübü" (adding "Metropolitan" to the name). The name was simply switched to "Büyükşehir Belediye Ankaraspor Kulübü" in 1998. "Büyükşehir Belediye Ankaraspor Kulübü" has many sub-divisions branching from its main football division. These include badminton, basketball, boxing, handball, ice hockey, judo, oil wrestling, table tennis, wrestling. Finally, in 2005, the football club changed its name to "Ankara Spor A.Ş" and only focused on football, while "Büyükşehir Belediye Ankaraspor Kulübü" continued its activity on branches other than football. The current name refers to Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire.
On September 15, 2009, Osmanlıspor was demoted from the Turkish Super League by “The Professional Football Disciplinary Committee (PFDK) over its unsportsmanlike relationship with Ankaragücü, which was deemed contrary to sporting competitiveness.” All Osmanlıspor games in the 2009–10 season have been cancelled and awarded 3–0 to Osmanlıspor's opponents by default. Osmanlispor was expelled from the Turkish leagues by TFF on 4 August 2010 due to being sued by TFF for objection to forced relegation in 2009–10. In the 2013–14 season, they were admitted to TFF First League. In the 2014–15 season, they became the champions of the division which resulted in their promotion to the Süper Lig.
The previous badge consisted of a blue and white colored shield, which bore the name and the foundation year of the club. The shield featured a view of an Anatolian leopard with some hexagon panels of a football in its head and chest. This animal, which lived in Anatolia and especially near Ankara for a period of time, symbolized the power and dignity of the club.