The Osteoglossomorpha are a group of bony fish in the Teleostei.
A notable member is the arapaima (Arapaima gigas), the largest freshwater fish in South America and one of the largest bony fishes alive. Other notable members include the bizarre freshwater elephantfishes (Mormyridae) and the largest bony fish to have ever lived, Xiphactinus.
Most osteoglossomorph lineages are extinct today. Only the somewhat diverse "bone-tongues" (Osteoglossiformes) and two species of mooneyes (Hiodontiformes) remain.
- ^ See references in Haaramo (2008)