Oswestry Disability Index
The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is an index derived from the Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire used by clinicians and researchers to quantify disability for low back pain.
This validated questionnaire was first published by Jeremy Fairbank et al. in Physiotherapy in 1980. The current version was published in the journal Spine in 2000. The Oswestry Disability Index is currently considered by many as the gold standard for measuring degree of disability and estimating quality of life in a person with low back pain.
The self-completed questionnaire contains ten topics concerning intensity of pain, lifting, ability to care for oneself, ability to walk, ability to sit, sexual function, ability to stand, social life, sleep quality, and ability to travel. Each topic category is followed by 6 statements describing different potential scenarios in the patient's life relating to the topic. The patient then checks the statement which most closely resembles their situation. Each question is scored on a scale of 0-5 with the first statement being zero and indicating the least amount of disability and the last statement is scored 5 indicating most severe disability. The scores for all questions answered are summed, then multiplied by two to obtain the index (range 0 to 100). Zero is equated with no disability and 100 is the maximum disability possible.
- 0 to 20: Minimal disability
- 21-40: Moderate Disability
- 41-60: Severe Disability
- 61-80: Crippling back pain
- 81-100: These patients are either bed-bound or have an exaggeration of their symptoms.
- Fairbank JC, Couper J, Davies JB. The Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire. Physiotherapy 1980; 66: 271-273.
- Fairbank JC, Pynsent PB. The Oswestry Disability Index. Spine 2000 Nov 15;25(22):2940-52
- National Council for Osteopathic Research http://www.ncor.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Oswestry-Disability-questionnairev2.pdf
- MAPI Research Trust site with information about licensing, along with access to a review copy of the questionnaire
- ODI FACEBOOK PAGE Oswestry Disability Index Facebook Page
- Rumi University Online PT Tools Online Calculator for Oswestry Disability Index in English, Turkish, German, Greek, Japan and Tai.