Luzon fruit bat

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Luzon fruit bat
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Pteropodidae
Genus: Otopteropus
Kock, 1969
Species: O. cartilagonodus
Binomial name
Otopteropus cartilagonodus
Kock, 1969
Luzon Fruit Bat area.png
Luzon Fruit Bat range

The Luzon fruit bat (Otopteropus cartilagonodus) is a species of megabat in the family Pteropodidae. It is monotypic within the genus Otopteropus.[citation needed] It is endemic to the Philippines. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Description[edit]

The Luzon Fruit Bat, a member of the order Chiroptera, is a small bat that is common to Luzon island.[2] The Luzon Fruit Bat exhibits dark blackish brown coloration, with a lighter color appearing on the abdominal area, usually grey.[3] The Luzon Fruit Bat is nocturnal and has rather large eyes, especially for its small stature.[3] Luzon Fruit bats are identifiable by their ears, which are marked by red thickenings. [4]

This species exhibits sexual dimorphism in their cranial characters, particularly the skull.[5] The overall size of the skull is found to be larger in males, but females have a more heightened braincase.[5] Because of this, the females have a longer total body length, while both sexes have similar wing bone length.[5]

Ecology[edit]

Distribution and Habitat[edit]

The Philippine Islands have wide fauna diversity. Under the order Chiroptera the island is home to 73 species, 36 genera and 6 families.[5] Luzon Fruit Bats are one of two species in the family Pteropodidae that have undergone radiation in Southeast Asia.[5] The Luzon Fruit Bat is restricted to Luzon Island, found on the Philippine archipelago.[6] They occupy three different regions on this island: 1) Cordillera Central Mountains, 2) Sierra Madre Mountains and the Zambales Mountains.[7] It has been hypothesized that these three clades diverged from one another around 1.91 million years ago.[2]

The Luzon Fruit Bats are more abundant in montane primary forests.[4] But they have spread to well-developed secondary forests, as well as lowland, montane, and mossy forests.[4] Their distribution is found in an elevation range from 200 – 2250 meters (Heaney et al. 1998), but regions of middle elevation is preferred.[2] Because of their high elevation location, they are listed as a Least Concern.[1]

Diet[edit]

The Luzon Fruit bat is frugivorous; its diet consists mainly of fruit or nectar.[4] In their consumption of fruit, they help contribute to natural reforestation by dispersing seeds.[4] Due to a difference in cranial size, males and females tend to have different food preferences, based on what is most accessible to their body shape.[5]

Behavior[edit]

Reproduction[edit]

Female Luzon Fruit Bats have a long duplex uterus that is superficially joined at the cervix.[3] These bats produce one or two young per year.[7] And the distribution of embryo between the left and right uteri are relatively equal and no preference has been observed.[3] Research has concluded that females undergo delayed implantation, although the specific length of delay is unknown. [3]

Males members of the Chiroptera order have a wide morphological variation of primary reproductive structures.[8] Male Luzon Fruit Bats are no exception, as they display a form of migratory testes, in which their testes are located in the abdomen.[3] Additionally, these male bats have few spermatozoa in both their testes and epididymis, indicating that much of the sperm in not fully mature.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ong, P., Rosell-Ambal, G. & Tabaranza, B. & Heaney, L., Duya, P., Gonzalez, J.C. & Balete, D. 2008. Otopteropus cartilagonodus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 08 September 2013.
  2. ^ a b c Roberts, Trina E. Divergence, diversity, distance, and disequilibrium: comparative phylogeography of six Philippine fruit bats (Chiroptera; Pteropodidae). Diss. University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, 2005.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Heideman, Paul D., Jennifer A. Cummings, and Lawrence R. Heaney. "Reproductive timing and early embryonic development in an Old World fruit bat, Otopteropus cartilagonodus (Megachiroptera)." Journal of mammalogy 74.3 (1993): 621-630.
  4. ^ a b c d e Heaney, Lawrence R. "Synopsis of the mammalian fauna of the Philippine Islands." (1998).
  5. ^ a b c d e f Rickart, Eric A., Jennifer A. Mercier, and Lawrence R. Heaney. "Cytogeography of Philippine bats (Mammalia." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 112.3 (1999): 453-469.
  6. ^ Alviola, Phillip A., et al. "Chapter 2: mammalian diversity patterns on Mount Palali, Caraballo Mountains, Luzon." Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences(2011): 61-74.
  7. ^ a b Ruedas, L. A., J. R. Demboski, and R. V. Sison. "Morphological and ecological variation in Otopteropus cartilagonodus Kock, 1969 (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) from Luzon, Philippines." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 107.1 (1994): 1-16.
  8. ^ Beguelini, Mateus R., et al. "Morphological variation of primary reproductive structures in males of five families of neotropical bats." The Anatomical Record 296.1 (2013): 156-167.

Sources[edit]