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Otorhinolaryngology // (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons. Patients seek treatment from an otorhinolaryngologist for diseases of the ear, nose, throat, base of the skull, and for the surgical management of cancers and benign tumors of the head and neck.
The term is a combination of New Latin combining forms (oto- + rhino- + laryngo- + -logy) derived from four Ancient Greek words: οὖς ous (gen.: ὠτός otos), "ear", ῥίς rhis, "nose", λάρυγξ larynx, "larynx" and -λογία logia, "study" (cf. Greek ωτορινολαρυγγολόγος, "otorhinolaryngologist").
Otorhinolaryngologists are physicians (MD, DO, MBBS, MBChB, etc.) who, in the United States, complete at least five years of surgical residency training. This is composed of six months of general surgical training and four and a half years in specialist surgery. In Canada and the United States, practitioners complete a five-year residency training after medical school.
Following residency training, some otolaryngologist-head & neck surgeons complete an advanced sub-specialty fellowship, where training can be one to two years in duration. In the United States and Canada, otorhinolaryngology is one of the most competitive specialties in medicine in which to obtain a residency position following medical school.
In the United Kingdom entrance to otorhinolaryngology higher surgical training is highly competitive and involves a rigorous national selection process. The training programme consists of 6 years of higher surgical training after which trainees frequently undertake fellowships in a sub-speciality prior to becoming a consultant.
|Head and Neck Oncologic Surgery||Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery*||Otology||Neurotology*||Rhinology and Sinus Surgery||Laryngology and Voice Disorders||Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology*||Sleep Medicine*|
|Surgical oncology||Facial cosmetic surgery||Ear||Middle and inner ear||Sinusitis||Voice disorders||Velopalatine insufficiency||Sleep disorders|
|Maxillofacial surgery||Hearing||Temporal bone||Allergy||Phono-surgery||Cleft lip and palate||Sleep apnea surgery|
|Endocrine surgery||Traumatic reconstruction||Balance||Skull base surgery||Anterior skull base||Swallowing disorders||Airway||Sleep investigations|
|Endoscopic Surgery||Craniofacial surgery||Dizziness||Apnea and snoring||Vascular malformations|
|Cochlear implant/BAHA||Cochlear implant/BAHA|
(* Currently recognized by American Board of Medical Subspecialties)
Head and neck oncology
- Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx
- Oral cancer
- Skin cancer of the head & neck
- Thyroid cancer
- Endocrine surgery of the head and neck (thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy)
- Microvascular free flap reconstruction
- Skull base surgery
- Salivary gland cancer
Otology and neurotology
- Hearing loss
- Otitis externa – outer ear or ear canal inflammation
- Otitis media – middle ear inflammation
- Perforated eardrum (hole in the eardrum due to infection, trauma, explosion or loud noise)
- Ear surgery
Rhinology includes nasal dysfunction and sinus diseases.
- Nasal obstruction
- Nasal septum deviation
- Sinusitis – acute, chronic
- Environmental allergies
- Pituitary tumor
- Empty nose syndrome
- Severe or recurrent epistaxis
- Caustic ingestion
- Cricotracheal resection
- Laryngotracheal reconstruction
- Myringotomy and tubes
- Obstructive sleep apnea – pediatric
- Spasmodic dysphonia
- Cancer of the larynx
- Vocology – science and practice of voice habilitation
Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery
Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is a one-year fellowship open to otorhinolaryngologists and plastic surgeons who wish to specialize in the aesthetic and reconstructive surgery of the head, face, and neck.
- Rhinoplasty and septoplasty
- Facelift (rhytidectomy)
- Injectable cosmetic treatments
- Trauma to the face
- Skin cancer (e.g. Basal Cell Carcinoma)
- "otolaryngologist" entry in: Peter Harris, Sue Nagy, Nicholas Vardaxis, Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions - Australian & New Zealand Edition, Elsevier Health Sciences, 2009.