Otto Schaefer, CM (October 2, 1919 – November 2, 2009) was a German-Canadian doctor known for his work with Canada's Inuit peoples.
Schaefer was born in Betzdorf, Germany, and had six brothers and two sisters. He studied at the University of Heidelberg, graduating in 1944. He came to Canada in 1951. After working in the Northwest Territories as a medical officer, he took a fellowship in internal medicine at the University of Alberta.
From 1964 until 1985, Schaefer was the director of the Northern Medical Research Unit. He founded the Canadian Society for Circumpolar Health, and published over 100 papers on Arctic health.
Schaefer was a member of the Order of Canada.