April 3, 1880|
|Died||October 4, 1903
|Alma mater||University of Vienna|
|Philosophy, logic, psychology, genius, gender, religion|
|All people have elements of both femininity and masculinity, logic and ethics are one, logic is tied to the principle of identity (A=A), the genius is the universal thinker|
Otto Weininger (German: [ˈvaɪnɪŋɐ]; April 3, 1880 – October 4, 1903) was an Austrian philosopher. In 1903, he published the book Geschlecht und Charakter (Sex and Character), which gained popularity after his suicide at the age of 23. Much of Weininger's philosophy is misogynistic and antisemitic and parts of his rhetoric were used by the Nazi regime (while at the same time denouncing him) but was held to be a great genius by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein and the writer August Strindberg (see discussion below).
Otto Weininger was born on April 3, 1880, in Vienna as a son of the Jewish goldsmith Leopold Weininger and his wife Adelheid. After attending primary school and graduating from secondary school in July 1898, Weininger registered at the University of Vienna in October of the same year. He studied philosophy and psychology but took courses in natural sciences and medicine as well. Weininger learned Greek, Latin, French and English very early, later also Spanish and Italian, and acquired passive knowledge of the languages of August Strindberg and Henrik Ibsen (i.e., Swedish and Danish/Norwegian).
In the autumn of 1901 Weininger tried to find a publisher for his work Eros and the Psyche – which he submitted to his professors Friedrich Jodl and Laurenz Müllner as his thesis in 1902. He met Sigmund Freud, who, however, did not recommend the text to a publisher. His professors accepted the thesis and Weininger received his Ph.D. degree in July 1902. Shortly thereafter he became proudly and enthusiastically a Protestant.
In 1902 Weininger went to Bayreuth where he witnessed a performance of Richard Wagner's Parsifal, which left him deeply impressed. Via Dresden and Copenhagen he made his way to Christiania (Oslo) where he for the first time saw Henrik Ibsen's liberation drama Peer Gynt on stage. Upon his return to Vienna Weininger suffered from fits of deep depression. The decision to take his own life gradually took shape in his mind; after a long discussion with his friend Artur Gerber, however, Weininger realized that "it is not yet time".
In June 1903, after months of concentrated work, his book Sex and Character – A Fundamental Investigation – an attempt "to place sex relations in a new and decisive light" – was published by the Vienna publishers Braumüller & Co. The book contained his thesis to which three vital chapters were added: (XII) "The Nature of Woman and her Relation to the Universe", (XIII) "Judaism", (XIV) "Women and Humanity".
While the book was not received negatively, it did not create the expected stir. Weininger was attacked by Paul Julius Möbius, professor in Leipzig and author of the book On the Physiological Deficiency of Women, and was accused of plagiarizing. Deeply disappointed and seemingly depressed, Weininger left for Italy.
Back in Vienna he spent his last five days with his parents. On October 3, he took a room in the house in Schwarzspanierstraße 15 where Ludwig van Beethoven died. He told the landlady that he was not to be disturbed before morning since he planned to work and then to go to bed late. This night he wrote two letters, one addressed to his father, the other one to his brother Richard, telling them that he was going to shoot himself.
On October 4, Weininger was found mortally wounded, having shot himself in the chest. He died in the Wiener Allgemeines Krankenhaus (Vienna general hospital), and was buried in the Matzleinsdorf Protestant Cemetery in Vienna.
Sex and Character
Sex and Character argues that all people are composed of a mixture of male and the female substance, and attempts to support his view scientifically. The male aspect is active, productive, conscious and moral/logical, while the female aspect is passive, unproductive, unconscious and amoral/alogical. Weininger argues that emancipation is only possible for the "masculine woman", e.g. some lesbians, and that the female life is consumed with the sexual function: both with the act, as a prostitute, and the product, as a mother. Woman is a "matchmaker". By contrast, the duty of the male, or the masculine aspect of personality, is to strive to become a genius, and to forgo sexuality for an abstract love of the absolute, God, which he finds within himself.
A significant part of his book is about the nature of genius. Weininger argues that there is no such thing as a person who has a genius for, say, mathematics, or music, but there is only the universal genius, in whom everything exists and makes sense. He reasons that such genius is probably present in all people to some degree.
In a separate chapter, Weininger, himself a Jew who had converted to Christianity in 1902, analyzes the archetypal Jew as feminine, and thus profoundly irreligious, without true individuality (soul), and without a sense of good and evil. Christianity is described as "the highest expression of the highest faith", while Judaism is called "the extreme of cowardliness". Weininger decries the decay of modern times, and attributes much of it to feminine (or identically, "Jewish") influences. By Weininger's reckoning everyone shows some femininity, and what he calls "Jewishness".
Weininger's suicide in the house in Vienna, where Beethoven had died, the man he considered one of the greatest geniuses of all, made him a cause célèbre, inspired several imitation suicides, and created a lot more interest in his book. The book received glowing reviews by August Strindberg, who wrote that it had "probably solved the hardest of all problems", the "woman problem".
Influence on Wittgenstein
Ludwig Wittgenstein read the book as a schoolboy and was deeply impressed by it, later listing it as one of his influences and recommending it to friends. Wittgenstein is recalled as saying that he thought Weininger was "a great genius". However, Wittgenstein's deep admiration of Weininger's thought was coupled with a fundamental disagreement with his position. Wittgenstein writes to G. E. Moore: "It isn't necessary or rather not possible to agree with him but the greatness lies in that with which we disagree. It is his enormous mistake which is great." In the same letter to Moore, Wittgenstein added that if one were to add a negation sign before the whole of Sex and Character, one would have expressed an important truth; that is, he did not disagree with Weininger point by point but as a whole.
Weininger and the Nazis
Isolated parts of Weininger's writings were used by Nazi propaganda, despite the fact that Weininger actively argued against the ideas of race that came to be identified with the Nazis. Hitler has been quoted as saying jokingly about Weininger: "I only knew one good Jew and he committed suicide".
In the chapter titled "Judaism" in his book Sex and Character Weininger writes:
- The Jewish race has been chosen by me as a subject of discussion, because, as will be shown, it presents the gravest and most formidable difficulties for my views.
- I must, however, make clear what I mean by Judaism; I mean neither a race nor a people nor a recognised creed. I think of it as a tendency of the mind, as a psychological constitution which is a possibility for all mankind, but which has become actual in the most conspicuous fashion only amongst the Jews. Antisemitism itself will confirm my point of view.
- ...Thus the fact is explained that the bitterest Antisemites are to be found amongst the Jews themselves.
- The true concept of the State is foreign to the Jew, because he, like the woman, is wanting in personality; his failure to grasp the idea of true society is due to his lack of free intelligible ego. Like women, Jews tend to adhere together, but they do not associate as free independent individuals mutually respecting each other's individuality.
- As there is no real dignity in women, so what is meant by the word "gentleman" does not exist amongst the Jews. The genuine Jew fails in this innate good breeding by which alone individuals honour their own individuality and respect that of others. There is no Jewish nobility, and this is the more surprising as Jewish pedigrees can be traced back for thousands of years.
- The familiar Jewish arrogance has a similar explanation...
Later, in the same chapter he writes:
- The faults of the Jewish race have often been attributed to the repression of that race by Aryans, and many Christians are still disposed to blame themselves in this respect. But the self- reproach is not justified. Outward circumstances do not mould a race in one direction, unless there is in the race the innate tendency to respond to the moulding forces; the total result comes at least as much from a natural disposition as from the modifying circumstances.
- The Jew is not really anti-moral. But, none the less, he does not represent the highest ethical type. He is rather non- moral, neither good nor bad.
- So also in the case of the woman...
- ...In the Jew and the woman, good and evil are not distinct from one another.
- Jews, then, do not live as free, self-governing individuals, choosing between virtue and vice in the Aryan fashion...
Accordingly, Weininger's views are considered an important step in attempts to exlude women and Jews from society based on methodical philosophy, in an era declaring human equality and scientific based thought.
In her book Nazi Ideology prior to 1933, Barbara Miller Lane shows how Nazi ideologists such as Dietrich Eckart, removed Weiningers extra care for distancing himself from accusing the individual Jews, and instead simply stated, in accordance with Weininger's writings that the Jews, like women, lacked a soul, lacked a belief in immortality, and that the Aryans must guard themselves from "Jewishness" within, since Jewishness is the source of evil.
- Geschlecht und Charakter: Eine prinzipielle Untersuchung (in German). Vienna and Leipzig: Wilhelm Braumüller. 1903.
- Über die letzten Dinge (PDF) (in German). Vienna and Leipzig: Wilhelm Braumüller. 1904.
- (in German) Geschlecht und Charakter: Eine prinzipielle Untersuchung, neunzehnte, unveränderte Auflage mit einem Bildnisse des Verfassers (Wien und Leipzig: Wilhelm Braumüller Universitäts-Verlagsbuchhandlung Gesellschaft M. B. H., 1920).
- Sex & Character (Authorised translation from the sixth German ed.). London: William Heinemann; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1906.
- Sex and Character: An Investigation Of Fundamental Principles. Ladislaus Löb, trans. Indiana University Press. 2005. ISBN 0-253-34471-9.
- A Translation of Weininger's Über die letzten Dinge (1904/1907), On Last Things. Steven Burns (trans.). Lewiston, Queenston and Lampeter: Edwin Mellen Press. 2001. ISBN 0-7734-7400-5.
- Michael Mack, German Idealism and the Jew: The Inner Anti-Semitism of Philosophy and German Jewish Responses, University of Chicago Press, 2013, p. 104.
- [Wittgenstein Reads Weininger – Reviews – Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews – University of Notre Dame]: "many Weiningerian themes are Schopenhauerian -- e.g. genius, solipsism, microcosm/macrocosm; concern with transcendental 'limits'; belief in immutable, ideal Character; also, interest in faces ('Physiognomie'). Schopenhauer influenced Weininger."
- Harrowitz, Nancy; Hyams, Barbara, eds. (1995). Jews and Gender: Responses to Otto Weininger. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-249-7. See, for example, pp. 223–4, which speak of "Weininger's misogynist, and perhaps also anti-Semitic, ideologies", though p. 91 mentions "a reevaluation of his work ... show[ing] how misleading it is to dismiss Weininger as a misogynist and Jewish self-hater".
- Sengoopta 2000, p. 163.
- Weininger 2005, p. 131.
- Weininger 2005, p. 188.
- Weininger 2005, p. 148.
- Weininger 2005, p. 98.
- Weininger 2005, p. 274.
- In a letter from August Strindberg to Emil Schering, in Die Fackel, 1903."
- Monk, Ray: Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius. 1990.
- Drury, M. O'C: "Some Notes on Conversations with Wittgenstein", in "Recollections of Wittgensten", ed. R. Rhees (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1984), p. 106.
- Another tack: The Otto Weininger syndrome, Sarah Honig, June 4, 2010 (Jerusalem Post)
- Weininger Sex and Character (
- Women, Jews and Modernity in Otto Weininger
- Nazi Ideology Prior to 1933, Barbara Miller Lane and Leila J. Rupp, ISBN 0-7190-0719-4 (Online edition, Google Books)
- Sengoopta, Chandak. Otto Weininger: Sex, Science, and Self in Imperial Vienna University of Chicago Press, 2000. ISBN 0-226-74867-7
- Nancy Harrowitz, Barbara Hyams (eds). Jews and Gender: Responses to Otto Weininger. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995 ISBN 1-56639-249-7. Table of Contents & Chapter 1
- Abrahamsen, David. The Mind and Death of a Genius. New York: Columbia University Press, 1946.
- Stern, David G. and Béla Szabados (eds). Wittgenstein Reads Weininger. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-521-53260-4
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