Ottoman Turkish alphabet
|Ottoman Turkish alphabet|
|ISO 15924||Arab, , Arabic|
The Ottoman Turkish alphabet (Ottoman Turkish: الفبا, elifbâ) is a version of the Arabic alphabet used to write Ottoman Turkish until 1928, when it was replaced by the Latin-based modern Turkish alphabet.
The earliest known Turkic alphabet is the Orkhon script. When Turks adopted Islam, they began to use Arabic script for their languages, especially under the Kara-Khanids. Though the Seljuks used Persian as their official language, in the late Seljuk period, Turkish began to be written again in Anatolia in the nascent Ottoman state.
The Ottoman Turkish alphabet is a Turkish form of the Perso-Arabic script. Well suited to writing Arabic borrowings, it was poorly suited to native Turkish words. When it came to consonants, Arabic has several consonants that do not exist in Turkish, making several Arabic letters superfluous except for Arabic loanwords; conversely, a few letters had to be invented to write words with Turkic and Indo-European roots, as Arabic did not have certain letters, such as g or p. In the case of vowels, Turkish contains eight different short vowels and no long ones, whereas Arabic has three short and three long vowels; further complicating matters was that in the Arabic script, only long vowels are usually expressed. Still, Turkic languages such as Azerbaijani and Uzbek continue to be written using a modified version of the Arabic script in Iran, Afghanistan and Iraq.
The introduction of the telegraph and the printing press in the 19th century exposed further weaknesses in the Arabic script.
Some Turkish reformers promoted the Latin script well before Atatürk's reforms. In 1862, during an earlier period of reform, the statesman Münuf Pasha advocated a reform of the alphabet. At the start of the 20th century, similar proposals were made by several writers associated with the Young Turk movement, including Hüseyin Cahit, Abdullah Cevdet and Celâl Nuri.
The issue was raised again in 1923 during the İzmir Economic Congress of the new Turkish Republic, sparking a public debate that was to continue for several years. A move away from the Arabic script was strongly opposed by conservative and religious elements. It was argued that Romanization of the script would detach Turkey from the wider Islamic world, substituting a foreign (European) concept of national identity for the confessional community.
Others opposed Romanization on practical grounds, as was no suitable adaptation of the Latin script that could be used for Turkish phonemes. Some suggested that a better alternative might be to modify the Arabic script to introduce extra characters for better representing Turkish vowels.
Ottoman Turkish script was replaced by the Latin-based new Turkish alphabet. Its use became compulsory in all public communications in 1929. The change was formalized by the Law on the Adoption and Implementation of the Turkish Alphabet, passed on November 1, 1928, and effective on January 1, 1929.
As with Arabic and Persian, texts in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet are written right to left. The appearance of a letter changes depending on its position in a word:
- isolated (in a one-letter word);
- final (in which case it is joined on the right to the preceding letter);
- medial (joined on both sides); and
- initial (joined on the left to the following letter).
Some letters cannot be joined to the left and so do not possess separate medial and initial forms. In medial position, the final form is used. In initial position, the isolated form is used.
|ا||ـا||—||a||elif||a, e||—, ā, '||æ, e, —, (ʔ)|
|ء||—||hemze||—, '||—, '||—, [ʔ]|
|ب||ـب||ـبـ||بـ||b||be||b (p)||b||b (p)|
|ض||ـض||ـضـ||ضـ||s̭||dad||d, z||ż||z (d)|
|ع||ـع||ـعـ||عـ||o||ayn||', —||‘||—, ʔ|
|غ||ـغ||ـغـ||غـ||o̱||gayn||g, ğ, (v)||ġ||[ɣ → g], ◌ː, (v),|
|گ||ـگ||ـگـ||گـ||k̆||gef (1), kāf-ı fārsī||g, ğ, (v)||g||[g → ɟ], j, (v)|
|ڭ||ـڭ||ـڭـ||ڭـ||ǩ||nef, ñef, sağır kef (1), kāf-ı nūnī||n||ñ||n, [ŋ]|
|و||ـو||—||w||vav||v, o, ö, u, ü||v, ū, aw, avv, ūv||v, o, œ, u, y|
|ه||ـه||ـهـ||هـ||e||he (3)||h, e, a||h (2)||h, æ, e, (t)|
|ی||ـی||ـیـ||یـ||j||ye||y, ı, i||y, ī, ay, á, īy||j, ɯ, i|
- In most texts, kef, gef, and sağır kef are written the same way although one Ottoman variant of gef has a "mini-kaf" of ﻙ as well as the doubled upper stroke of گ. In general, /g/ and /ŋ/ sounds are represented by kef ك.
- The Library of Congress recommends for he (هـ) in a word in the construct state to be romanised t and when a word ending in he is used adverbially, it should be romanised tan.
- Persian and Ottoman use the order vāv, he, ye, though in Arabic, they are he, vāv, ye.
- One further sign, which is not considered an actual letter, is the so-called te merbūṭa ('connected t'), which can indicate the Arabic feminine singular ending and which is often also written in Ottoman texts. Te merbūṭa is always at the end
The orthography of Ottoman Turkish is complex, as many Turkish sounds can be written with several different letters. For example, the phoneme /s/ can be written as ⟨ث⟩, ⟨س⟩, or ⟨ص⟩. Conversely, some letters have more than one value: ⟨ك⟩ k may be /k/, /ɡ/, /n/, /j/, or /ː/ (lengthening the preceding vowel; modern ğ), and vowels are written ambiguously or not at all. For example, the text ⟨كورك⟩ kwrk can be read as /ɟevɾec/ 'biscuit', /cyɾc/ 'fur', /cyɾec/ 'shovel', /cøryc/ 'bellows', /ɟørek/ 'view', which in modern orthography are written gevrek, kürk, kürek, körük, görek.
Arabic and Persian borrowings are written in their original orthography: sabit 'firm' is written as ⟨ثابت⟩ s̱’bt, with ⟨ث⟩ s̱ representing /s/ (in Arabic /θ/), and ⟨ا⟩ ’ representing /aː/ as in Arabic but with no indication of the short /i/. The letters ث ح ذ ض ظ ع are found only in borrowings from Arabic; ژ is only in borrowings from Persian and French. Although the Arabic vowel points (harakat) can be used ⟨ثَابِت⟩ s̱a’bit, they are generally found only in dictionaries and didactic works, as in Arabic and Persian, and they still do not identify vowel sounds unambiguously.
Consonant letters are classified in three series, based on vowel harmony: soft, hard, and neutral. The soft consonant letters, ت س ك گ ه, are found in front vowel (e, i, ö, ü) contexts; the hard, ح خ ص ض ط ظ ع غ ق, in back vowel (a, ı, o, u) contexts; and the neutral, ب پ ث ج چ د ذ ر ز ژ ش ف ل م ن, in either. In Perso-Arabic borrowings, the vowel used in Turkish depends on the softness of the consonant. Thus, ⟨كلب⟩ klb 'dog' (Arabic /kalb/) is /kelb/, while ⟨قلب⟩ ḳlb 'heart' (Arabic /qalb/) is /kalb/. Conversely, in Turkish words, the choice of consonant reflects the native vowel.
|Hard (back)||ط||ط ض||ص||ض ظ||ق||غ||ع||ح خ|
(All other sounds are only written with neutral consonant letters.)
In Turkish words, vowels are sometimes written using the vowel letters as the second letter of a syllable: elif ⟨ا⟩ for /a/; ye ⟨ی⟩ for /i/, /ɯ/; vav ⟨و⟩ for /o/, /œ/, /u/, /y/; he ⟨ه⟩ for /a/, /e/. The corresponding harakat are there: ustun ⟨َ○⟩ (Arabic fatḥah) for /a/, /e/; esre ⟨ِ○⟩ (Arabic kasrah) for /ɯ/, /i/; ötre ⟨ُ○⟩ (Arabic ḍammah) for /o/, /œ/, /u/, /y/. The names of the harakat are also used for the corresponding vowels.
|Name||Arabic name||Point||Letter||Front reading||Back reading|
|ötre||ḍammah||ُ○||و vav||/œ/, /y/||/o/, /u/|
Other scripts were sometimes used by non-Muslims to write Ottoman Turkish since the Arabic alphabet was identified with Islam.
The first novel to be written in the Ottoman Empire was Akabi (1851), which was written in the Armenian script by Vartan Pasha. Similarly, when the Armenian Duzian family managed the Ottoman mint during the reign of Sultan Abdülmecid I (r. 1839–61), they kept records in Ottoman Turkish but used the Armenian script.
The Greek alphabet and the Rashi script of Hebrew were used by Greeks, Orthodox Turks and Jews for Ottoman. Greek-speaking Muslims would write Greek using the Ottoman Turkish script. Karamanlides (Orthodox Turks in Central Anatolia around Karaman region ) used Greek letters for Ottoman Turkish.
|Arabic form||Number||Ottoman Turkish||Modern Turkish|
- Jan Schmidt, "How to Write Turkish? The Vagaries of the Arabo-Persian Script in Ottoman-Turkish Texts" doi:10.1515/9783110639063-006, Creating Standards: Interactions with Arabic Script in 12 Manuscript Cultures ISBN 9783110634983, in Studies in Manuscript Cultures 16:131ff (2019)
- Zürcher, Erik Jan. Turkey: a modern history, p. 188. I. B.Tauris, 2004. ISBN 978-1-85043-399-6
- Gürçağlar, Şehnaz Tahir. The politics and poetics of translation in Turkey, 1923–1960, pp. 53–54. Rodopi, 2008. ISBN 978-90-420-2329-1
- Dil Derneği, Yazım Kılavuzu, 2002 (the writing guide of the Turkish language)
- Nationalist Notes, Time, July 23, 1928
- "Tūrk Harflerinin Kabul ve Tatbiki Hakkında Kanun" [Acceptance and Application of Turkish Letters LAW] (in Turkish). Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- Erik Jan Zürcher (2004), Turkey: a Modern History, pages 188–9. ISBN 978-1-85043-399-6
- "Ottoman script" (PDF). (166 KB), Library of Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- V. H. Hagopian, Ottoman-Turkish Conversation-Grammar, London and Heidelberg, 1907, p. 1-25 full text
- Buğday, Korkut M. (2009). The Routledge introduction to literary Ottoman. Routledge. ISBN 9780415493383. OCLC 281098978.
- Diran Kélékian, Dictionnaire Turc-Français, Constantinople/استانبول, 1911
- Mansel, Philip (2011). Constantinople. Hachette UK. ISBN 978-1848546479.
- "Ottoman-Turkish conversation-grammar; a practical method of learning the Ottoman-Turkish language".
- Simon Ager, Turkish alphabet, Omniglot