Every sultan of the Ottoman Empire had his own monogram, called the tughra, which served as a royal symbol. A coat of arms in the European heraldic sense was created in the late 19th century. Hampton Court requested from the Ottoman Empire the coat of arms to be included in their collection. As the coat of arms had not been previously used in the Ottoman Empire, it was designed after this request and the final design was adopted by Sultan Abdul Hamid II on April 17, 1882. It included two flags: the flag of the Ottoman dynasty, which had a crescent and a star on red base, and the flag of the Islamic Caliph, which had three crescents on a green base.