Oul (Czech for 'beehive') was a workers mutual aid society, founded in Prague 1868 by the Old Czech politician and economist František Ladislav Chleborád. The organization was inspired by the ideas of Herman Schulz-Delitzsch from Germany. The Czech mutual aid, or self-help, movement spread outside of Prague and was also established in the Brno and Liberec areas.
- ^ Institute of Marxism-Leninism of the CPCz CC, Institute of Marxism-Leninism of the CPS CC. An Outline of the History of the CPCz. Prague: Orbis Press Agency, 1980. p. 21