|History of Vietnam
Âu Lạc (甌雒/甌駱) was the name of the Vietnamese state from 257 BCE to 179 BCE. It merged the lands of the former states of Nam Cường and Văn Lang until it was annexed into the state of Nam Việt (Nanyue). The capital was Cổ Loa, located in present-day Hanoi's Dong Anh district.
The country was created by Thục Phán, who served as its only monarch, ruling under the royal title of An Dương Vương and creating the Thục dynasty by uniting the mountainous Âu Việt region (comprising what is today northernmost Vietnam and parts of southern China) with the more southerly Lạc Việt (located in the Red River Delta of what is today northern Vietnam). According to old Vietnamese historical records Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư("大越史記全書") and Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục ("欽定越史通鑑綱目"), An Dương Vương (Thục Phán) was a prince of the state of Shu (蜀, pronounced Thục in Vietnamese) in modern Sichuan Province, China. He was sent by his father first to explore what are now the southern Chinese provinces of Guangxi and Yunnan and second to move their people to modern-day northern Vietnam during the invasion of the Qin state. Some modern Vietnamese believe that Thục Phán came upon the Âu Việt territory (modern-day northernmost Vietnam, western Guangdong, and southern Guangxi, with its capital in what is today Cao Bằng Province). After assembling an army, he defeated King Hùng Vương XVIII, the last ruler of the Hồng Bàng dynasty, around 257 BC. He proclaimed himself An Dương Vương ("King An Dương"). He then renamed Văn Lang as Âu Lạc, combining the names of the conquering and conquered peoples, and established a new fortress and capital at Co Loa on a rise overlooking the Red River about 16 km (10 mi) northeast of central Hanoi. Around 180 to 179 BC, Âu Lạc was conquered by Nam Việt, a kingdom that had its capital city, Panyu, around modern Guangzhou. Nam Việt rule lasted until 111 BC. In Vietnamese history, the rule of the Nam Việt kings is referred to as the Triệu dynasty.
- Philip Quang Phan, Vietnamese-American engineers: An examination of the leadership ... - Page 26 University of Phoenix - 2009 "The first written records of Vietnamese in leadership date back to 258 BC, with Thục Phán as King An Dương Vương of the kingdom Âu Lạc (Nguyễn, 1999). Throughout history, Asians in leadership positions was related to the following ..."
- Taylor, Keith Weller (1991). Birth of Vietnam, The. University of California Press. pp. 23–27. ISBN 0520074173.
- Patricia M. Pelley - Postcolonial Vietnam: New Histories of the National Past - Page 213 2002 "To bring Hanoi's singular status into sharper focus, Nguyễn Lương Bích discusses the previous capitals, beginning with Phong Châu, the capital of the prehistoric Hùng kings, and Cổ Loa, the capital of An Dương Vương."
- Ray, Nick; et al. (2010), "Co Loa Citadel", Vietnam, Lonely Planet, p. 123, ISBN 9781742203898
- Taylor (1983), p. 19
- Asian Perspectives, Volume 28, Issue 1 (1990), p. 36
- Taylor, Keith Weller. (1983). The Birth of Vietnam (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 0520074173. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Contributor: Far-Eastern Prehistory Association Asian Perspectives, Volume 28, Issue 1. (1990) University Press of Hawaii. Retrieved 7 August 2013.