Ouroboros was first described by an academic team lead by Aggelos Kiayias at the Annual International Cryptology Conference in 2017. Later that year, a stripped, permissioned variant called Ouroboros-BFT[non-primary source needed] was used by IOHK as the basis of the Cardano blockchain and the Ada cryptocurrency. Other versions include Ouroboros Praos, which is claimed to be able to support more users and the staking process while being secure against Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) and other “adaptive” attacks.
Nguyen et al compared Ouroboros to other PoS protocols.
- Ouroboros at Cardano Foundation
- Robby Houben, Alexander Syners (2018) “Cryptocurrencies and blockchain. Legal context and implications for financial crime, money laundering, and tax evasion”. July. European Parliament Policy Department for Economic, Scientific, and Quality of Life Policies, Directorate-General for Internal Policies. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/cmsdata/150761/TAX3%20Study%20on%20cryptocurrencies%20and%20blockchain.pdf
- Kiayias A., Russell A., David B., Oliynykov R. (2017) “Ouroboros: A Provably Secure Proof-of-Stake Blockchain Protocol”. In: Katz J., Shacham H. (eds) Advances in Cryptology – Crypto 2017. Springer, Cham. 27 July 2017. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-63688-7_12
- Aggelos Kiayias A., Russell A. (Oct 30, 2018). "Ouroboros-BFT: A Simple Byzantine Fault Tolerant Consensus Protocol". Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2018/1049. Retrieved November 23, 2020. https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/1049
- David B., Gaži P., Kiayias A., Russell A. (2018) “Ouroboros Praos: An Adaptively-Secure, Semi-synchronous Proof-of-Stake Blockchain”. Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2018. Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-78375-8_3
- Cong T. Nguyen, Dinh Thai Hoang and Diep N. Nguyen (2019) “Proof-of-Stake Consensus Mechanisms for Future Blockchain Networks: Fundamentals, Applications and Opportunities”, https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=8746079