Outer Solar System Origins Survey
|see § List of numbered minor planets discovered by OSSOS|
The Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) is an astronomical survey and observing program aimed at discovering and tracking trans-Neptunian objects located in the outermost regions of the Solar System beyond the orbit of Neptune. OSSOS is designed in way that observational biases can be characterized, allowing the numbers and orbits of detected objects to be compared using a survey simulator to the populations predicted in dynamical simulations of the emplacement of trans-Neptunian objects. Conducted at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope at Mauna Kea Observatories (568) in Hawaii, the survey has discovered 39 numbered objects as of 2018, with potentially hundreds more to follow. The survey's first numbered discovery was the object (496315) 2013 GP136 in 2013.
OSSOS observed eight blocks of the sky over a period of five years from 2013–2017 using the MegaPrime camera of the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Images of these blocks were taken near opposition (when the block is near opposite the sun), two months before, and two months after. This extended period of observation was designed to remove ephemeris bias which can cause the loss of some objects due to inaccurate predictions of their future positions. Pointing directions, detection efficiencies, and tracking frequencies were determined to allow other observational biases to be identified.
These identified biases are used by the survey simulator developed by the OSSOS group. This survey simulator can estimate the populations of detected objects, for example those in resonances, and set upper limits for the classes of objects not detected. The survey simulator can also predict the number of object that would be detected by OSSOS given the output of dynamical models of the early Solar System, allowing the models to be statistically tested.
OSSOS has detected 838 objects, bring the total objects detected by well characterized surveys to more than 1100. Among these objects are a possible dwarf planet in a 9:2 resonance with Neptune, and two objects in a 9:1 resonance with Neptune. Other resonant objects have been detected and their populations estimated. A previously identified 'kernel' in the cold classical Kuiper belt has been confirmed and other cold classical objects beyond the 2:1 resonance with Neptune have been identified. Analysis of the size distribution of the scattering population revealed a break in its slope. Extreme trans-Neptunian objects (eTNOs) have been found including one with a semi-major axis of 730 AU, 2013 SY99, and seven other objects with semi-major axes greater than 150 AU and perihelia greater than 30 AU. After accounting for OSSOS's known biases the orbital elements of these objects are consist with a uniformly distributed population. Four scattered disk objects with high perihelia have been detected with semi-major axes smaller than nearby resonances, consistent with their escape during a slow grainy migration of Neptune. Closer to the Sun, 20 centaurs were found, none of which were active.
Operating in conjunction with OSSOS is the Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (Col-OSSOS). Col-OSSOS observes OSSOS objects with red magnitudes brighter than 23.5 simultaneously using the Gemini-North and Canada-France-Hawaii telescopes. The simultaneous observation allows the colors of these object to be measured more accurately by removing variations in their brightness due to the rotation of the objects and changes in atmospheric conditions. These observations have revealed three surface types among the TNOs, and have identified numerous binaries including loosely bound neutrally colored 'blue binaries' that could have been pushed out into their current orbits during Neptune's migration. Among the dynamically excited populations the ratio of neutral to red objects has been estimated to be between 4:1 and 11:1. The Col-OSSOS team has also measured the color and light curve of ʻOumuamua.
The core members of the Outer Solar System Origin Survey are:
- Brett J. Gladman – principal investigator, orbit analysis
- John J. Kavelaars – data, discovery
- Jean-Marc Petit – orbit analysis, survey simulator
- Michele Bannister – data, discovery, telescope operations, (see cite)
- Stephen Gwyn – astrometric catalogue, (see cite)
- Kat Volk – orbit classification
- Ying-Tung (Charles) Chen – data analysis
- Mike Alexandersen – survey cadence & design
Collaborators of the Outer Solar System Origin Survey are:
- Andrew C. Becker
- Susan D. Benecchi (née Kern)
- Federica Bianco
- Steven Bickerton
- Ramon Brasser
- Audrey C. Delsanti
- Wesley Fraser
- Mikael Granvik
- Will Grundy
- Aurelie Guilbert-Lepoutre
- Amanda Sickafoose Gulbis
- Daniel Hestroffer
- Wing Ip
- Marian Jakubik
- Lynne Jones
- Nathan Kaib
- Pavlo Korsun
- Simon Krughoff
- Irina Kulyk
- Pedro Lacerda
- Sam Lawler
- Matthew Lehner
- Edward Lin
- Tim Lister
- Patryk Lykawka
- Ruth Murray-Clay
- Keith Noll (see cite)
- Alex Parker
- Nuno Peixinho
- Rosemary Pike
- Philippe Rousselot
- Megan Schwamb
- Cory Shankman
- Bruno Sicardy
- Scott Tremaine
- Pierre Vernazza (see cite)
- Shiang-Yu Wang
List of numbered minor planets discovered by OSSOS
|(496315) 2013 GP136||8 February 2013||list|
|(500828) 2013 GR136||4 April 2013||list|
|(500829) 2013 GT136||4 April 2013||list|
|(500830) 2013 GU136||4 April 2013||list|
|(500831) 2013 GV136||9 April 2013||list|
|(500832) 2013 GZ136||4 April 2013||list|
|(500833) 2013 GD137||4 April 2013||list|
|(500834) 2013 GK137||9 April 2013||list|
|(500835) 2013 GN137||4 April 2013||list|
|(500836) 2013 GQ137||4 April 2013||list|
|(500837) 2013 GT137||9 April 2013||list|
|(500838) 2013 GV137||9 April 2013||list|
|(500839) 2013 GW137||9 April 2013||list|
|(500840) 2013 GA138||9 April 2013||list|
|(500856) 2013 HT156||19 April 2013||list|
|(500876) 2013 JD64||8 May 2013||list|
|(500877) 2013 JE64||7 May 2013||list|
|(500878) 2013 JG64||7 May 2013||list|
|(500879) 2013 JH64||7 May 2013||list|
|(500880) 2013 JJ64||7 May 2013||list|
|(500881) 2013 JM64||8 May 2013||list|
|(500882) 2013 JN64||8 May 2013||list|
|(500883) 2013 JJ65||8 May 2013||list|
|(500884) 2013 JK65||8 May 2013||list|
|(500885) 2013 JL65||8 May 2013||list|
|(500886) 2013 JN65||7 May 2013||list|
|(500887) 2013 JO65||7 May 2013||list|
|(500888) 2013 JP65||7 May 2013||list|
|(505446) 2013 SP99||5 August 2013||list|
|(505447) 2013 SQ99||5 August 2013||list|
|(505448) 2013 SA100||5 August 2013||list|
|(505476) 2013 UL15||2 August 2013||list|
|(505477) 2013 UM15||2 August 2013||list|
|(505478) 2013 UT15||2 August 2013||list|
|(511551) 2014 UD225||8 August 2013||list|
|(511552) 2014 UE225||8 August 2013||list|
|(511553) 2014 UK225||29 November 2013||list|
|(511554) 2014 UL225||1 September 2013||list|
|(511555) 2014 UM225||8 August 2013||list|
- "Minor Planet Discoverers (by number)". Minor Planet Center. 31 March 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "Welcome to the Outer Solar System Origins Survey". www.ossos-survey.org. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- Lawler, S. M.; et al. (2018). "OSSOS. VIII. The Transition Between Two Size Distribution Slopes in the Scattering Disk". Astrophysical Journal. arXiv:1803.07521. Bibcode:2018AJ....155..197L. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aab8ff.
- Bannister, Michele T.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Petit, Jean-Marc; Gladman, Brett J.; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Chen, Ying-Tung; et al. (September 2016). "The Outer Solar System Origins Survey. I. Design and First-quarter Discoveries" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 25. arXiv:1511.02895. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...70B. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/70. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Lawler, S. M.; et al. (2018). "OSSOS: X. How to use a Survey Simulator: Statistical Testing of Dynamical Models Against the Real Kuiper Belt". arXiv:1802.00460.
- Bannister, Michelle; et al. (2018). "OSSOS. VII. 800+ Trans-Neptunian Objects—The Complete Data Release". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 236 (1): 18. arXiv:1805.11740. Bibcode:2018ApJS..236...18B. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aab77a.
- Kavelaars, J. J.; Bannister, Michele T.; Gladman, Brett; Petit, Jean-Marc; Gwyn, Stephen; Alexandersen, Mike; et al. (October 2017). "The Outer Solar System Origin Survey full data release orbit catalog and characterization". American Astronomical Society. Bibcode:2017DPS....4940502K. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Bannister, Michele T.; Alexandersen, Mike; Benecchi, Susan D.; Chen, Ying-Tung; Delsanti, Audrey; Fraser, Wesley C.; et al. (December 2016). "OSSOS. IV. Discovery of a Dwarf Planet Candidate in the 9:2 Resonance with Neptune" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 152 (6): 8. arXiv:1607.06970. Bibcode:2016AJ....152..212B. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/212. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Volk, Kathryn; et al. (2018). "OSSOS IX: two objects in Neptune's 9:1 resonance -- implications for resonance sticking in the scattering population". arXiv:1802.05805.
- Volk, Kathryn; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Gladman, Brett; Lawler, Samantha; Bannister, Michele T.; Kavelaars, J. J.; et al. (July 2016). "OSSOS III---Resonant Trans-Neptunian Populations: Constraints from the first quarter of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 152 (1): 25. arXiv:1604.08177. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...23V. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/1/23. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Shankman, C.; Kavelaars, JJ.; Gladman, B. J.; Alexandersen, M.; Kaib, N.; Petit, J.-M.; et al. (February 2016). "OSSOS. II. A Sharp Transition in the Absolute Magnitude Distribution of the Kuiper Belt's Scattering Population" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 151 (2): 11. arXiv:1511.02896. Bibcode:2016AJ....151...31S. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/151/2/31. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Bannister, Michele T.; Shankman, Cory; Volk, Kathryn; Chen, Ying-Tung; Kaib, Nathan; Gladman, Brett J.; et al. (June 2017). "OSSOS. V. Diffusion in the Orbit of a High-perihelion Distant Solar System Object" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 153 (6): 11. arXiv:1704.01952. Bibcode:2017AJ....153..262B. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa6db5. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Shankman, Cory; Kavelaars, J. J.; Bannister, Michele T.; Gladman, Brett J.; Lawler, Samantha M.; Chen, Ying-Tung; et al. (August 2017). "OSSOS. VI. Striking Biases in the Detection of Large Semimajor Axis Trans-Neptunian Objects" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 154 (2): 8. arXiv:1706.05348. Bibcode:2017AJ....154...50S. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa7aed. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Lawler, S. M.; et al. (2018). "OSSOS: XIII. Fossilized Resonant Dropouts Imply Neptune's Migration was Grainy and Slow". arXiv:1808.02618.
- Cabral, N.; et al. (2018). "OSSOS: XV. No active Centaurs in the Outer Solar System Origins Survey". arXiv:1810.03648.
- Fraser, Wesley. "Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey". Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- Pike, Rosemary E.; Fraser, Wesley C.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Marsset, Michael; Bannister, Michele T.; et al. (September 2017). "Col-OSSOS: z-Band Photometry Reveals Three Distinct TNO Surface Types". The Astronomical Journal. 154 (3): 8. arXiv:1708.03079. Bibcode:2017AJ....154..101P. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa83b1. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Fraser, Wesley C.; Bannister, Michele T.; Pike, Rosemary E.; Marsset, Michael; Schwamb, Megan E.; Kavelaars, J. J.; et al. (April 2017). "All planetesimals born near the Kuiper belt formed as binaries" (PDF). Nature Astronomy. 1. arXiv:1705.00683. Bibcode:2017NatAs...1E..88F. doi:10.1038/s41550-017-0088. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Schwamb, Megan E.; et al. (2018). "Col-OSSOS: The Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey". arXiv:1809.08501.
- Bannister, Michele T.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Fraser, Wesley C.; Marsset, Michael; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Benecchi, Susan D.; et al. (December 2017). "Col-OSSOS: Colors of the Interstellar Planetesimal 1I/`Oumuamua". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 851 (2): 7. arXiv:1711.06214. Bibcode:2017ApJ...851L..38B. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aaa07c. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "People – The OSSOS collaboration". www.ossos-survey.org. Retrieved 7 April 2018.