Outline of anarchism
|Part of the Politics series on|
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to anarchism:
Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful, or alternatively as opposing authority and hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations. Proponents of anarchism, known as "anarchists", advocate stateless societies or non-hierarchical voluntary associations.
- 1 Nature of anarchism
- 2 Anarchist schools of thought
- 3 History of anarchism
- 4 General anarchism concepts
- 5 Organizations
- 6 Anarchist literature
- 7 Notable figures
- 8 Related philosophies
- 9 See also
- 10 Footnotes
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Nature of anarchism
Anarchism is an ideology that promotes a rejection of philosophies, ideologies, institutions, and representatives of authority, in support of liberty. It asserts that cooperation is preferable to competition in promoting social harmony; that cooperation is only authentic when it is voluntary; and that government authority is unnecessary at best, or harmful at worst. In most cases, anarchism:
- Civil libertarianism
- Workers' self-management
- Decentrally planned economy or market socialism
- Direct action
- Mutual aid
- Common ownership
- Voluntary association
- Centrally planned economy
Manifestos and expositions
Anarchism is a living project which has continued to evolve as social conditions have changed. The following are examples of anarchist manifestos and essays produced during various time periods, each expressing different interpretations and proposals for anarchist philosophy.
- Anarchist Manifesto (1850) by Anselme Bellegarrigue
- State Socialism and Anarchism (1886) by Benjamin Tucker
- The Principles of Anarchism (c. 1890s) by Lucy Parsons
- Anarchy (1891) by Errico Malatesta
- The Soul of Man under Socialism (1891) by Oscar Wilde
- Anarchy Defended by Anarchists (1896) by Emma Goldman & Johann Most
- Anarchism and Our Times (1925) by Nestor Makhno
- Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft) (1926) by Dielo Truda
- What's Anarchism? (1932) by Hippolyte Havel
- The Philosophy of Anarchism (1940) by Herbert Read
- Anatomy of the State (1974) by Murray Rothbard
- Anarchism: Past and Present (1980) by Murray Bookchin
- Anarchism and Other Impediments to Anarchy (1985) by Bob Black
- Listen, Anarchist! (1987) by Chaz Bufe
- Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism: An Unbridgeable Chasm (1994) by Murray Bookchin
- The Anarchist Tension (1996) by Alfredo M. Bonanno
- An Anarchist FAQ (2008)
Anarchist schools of thought
Anarchist schools of thought – Anarchism has many heterogeneous and diverse schools of thought, united by a common opposition to compulsory rule. Anarchist schools are characterized by "the belief that government is both harmful and unnecessary", but may differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Regardless, some are viewed as being compatible, and it is not uncommon for individuals to subscribe to more than one.
- Anarchism without adjectives – in the words of historian George Richard Esenwein, "referred to an unhyphenated form of anarchism, that is, a doctrine without any qualifying labels such as communist, collectivist, mutualist, or individualist. For others, ... [it] was simply understood as an attitude that tolerated the coexistence of different anarchist schools."
- Anarchist communism – theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, capitalism, wages and private property (while retaining respect for personal property), and in favor of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy, and a horizontal network of voluntary associations and workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: "from each according to his ability, to each according to his need".
- Anarcho-capitalism – political philosophy which advocates the elimination of the state in favor of individual sovereignty, private property, and open markets. Anarcho-capitalists believe that in the absence of statute (law by decree or legislation), society would improve itself through the discipline of the free market (or what its proponents describe as a "voluntary society"). See anarchism and capitalism.
- Anarcha-feminism – combines anarchism with feminism. It generally views patriarchy as a manifestation of involuntary coercive hierarchy that should be replaced by decentralized free association. Anarcha-feminists believe that the struggle against patriarchy is an essential part of class struggle, and the anarchist struggle against the state.
- Anarcho-naturism – union of anarchist and naturist philosophies, that advocates vegetarianism, free love, nudism, hiking and an ecological world view within anarchist groups and outside them. Anarcho-naturism also promotes an ecological worldview, small ecovillages, and most prominently nudism as a way to avoid the artificiality of the industrial mass society of modernity.
- Anarcho-pacifism – tendency within the anarchist movement which rejects the use of violence in the struggle for social change and the abolition of the state.
- Anarcho-primitivism – anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. According to anarcho-primitivism, the shift from hunter-gatherer to agricultural subsistence gave rise to social stratification, coercion, alienation, and population growth.
- Black anarchism
- Buddhist anarchism
- Christian anarchism
- Collectivist anarchism
- Green anarchism
- Individualist anarchism
- Insurrectionary anarchism
- Philosophical anarchism
- Post-left anarchy
- Queer anarchism
The following terms do not refer to specific branches of anarchist thought, but rather are generic labels applied to various branches.
History of anarchism
History of anarchism – Although social movements and philosophies with anarchic qualities predate anarchism, anarchism as a specific political philosophy began in 1840 with the publication of What Is Property? by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. In the following decades it spread from Western Europe to various regions, countries, and continents, impacting local social movements. The success of the 1917 October Revolution in Russia initiated a decline in prominence for anarchism in the mid-20th century, roughly coinciding with the time period referred to by historians as The short twentieth century. Since the late 1980s, anarchism has begun a gradual return to the world stage.
- Historic precedents and background events (pre-1840)
- 1793 – William Godwin publishes Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, implicitly establishing the philosophical foundations of anarchism.
- 1827 – Josiah Warren opens the Cincinnati Time Store, an early experiment in mutualist economics.
- Classical development and global expansion (1840 – 1917)
- 1840 – Pierre-Joseph Proudhon publishes What Is Property? and becomes history's first self-proclaimed anarchist.
- 1864 – International Workingmen's Association founded. Early seeds of split between anarchists and Marxists begin.
- 1871 – Paris Commune takes place. Early anarchists (mutualists) participate.
- 1872 – IWA meets at the Hague Congress. Anarchists expelled by Marxist branch, beginning the anarchist/Marxist conflict.
- 1878 – Max Hödel fails in assassination attempt against Kaiser Wilhelm I. Ushers in era of propaganda of the deed.
- 1882 – God and the State by Mikhail Bakunin is published.
- 1886 – Haymarket affair takes place. Origin of May Day as a worker's holiday. Inspires a new generation of anarchists.
- 1892 – The Conquest of Bread by Peter Kropotkin published. Establishes anarchist communism.
- 1911 – The High Treason Incident leads to the execution of twelve Japanese anarchists; the first major blow against the Japanese anarchist movement.
- Post-WWI decline (1918 – c. 1980s)
- 1917 –The Russian Revolution creates first "socialist state." The combination of a Soviet dictatorship in the east, the Red Scare in the west, and the global Cold War, discourage anarchist revolution throughout the following decades.
- 1919–21 – The Free Territory, the first major anarchist revolution, is established in the Ukraine.
- 1919–21 – The Palmer Raids effectively cripple the anarchist movement in the United States.
- 1921 – The Communist Party of China is founded. The anarchist movement in China begins slow decline due to communist repression.
- 1929–31 – The autonomous Shinmin region, the second major anarchist revolution, is established in Manchuria.
- 1936–39 – The Spanish Revolution, the third and last major anarchist revolution, is established in Catalonia and surrounding areas.
- 1959 – The Cuban Revolution establishes a communist dictatorship. The Cuban anarchist movement is immediately repressed.
- 1974 – Dallas Accord, libertarian anarchism is tolerated inside Libertarian Party.
- Post-Cold War resurgence (c. 1990s – present)
- 1999 – Anarchists take part in riots which interrupt the WTO conference in Seattle. Is viewed as part of an anarchist resurgence in the United States.
History of anarchism by region
- Anarchism in Africa
- Anarchism in the Americas
- Anarchism in Asia
- Individualist anarchism in Europe
- Anarchism in Oceania
- Historical societies
- Anarchy Archives
- Centre International de Recherches sur l'Anarchisme
- Kate Sharpley Library
- Labadie Collection
General anarchism concepts
These are concepts which, although not exclusive to anarchism, are significant in historical and/or modern anarchist circles. As the anarchist milieu is philosophically heterogeneous, there is disagreement over which of these concepts should play a role in anarchism.
Formal anarchist organizational initiatives date back to the mid-19th century. The oldest surviving anarchist organizations include Freedom Press (est. 1886) of England, the Industrial Workers of the World (est. 1905), Anarchist Black Cross (est. 1906), Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden (est. 1910) and the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (est. 1910) of Spain.
- Jura federation (est. 1870)
- Freedom Press (est. 1886)
- Argentine Regional Workers' Federation (est. 1901)
- Industrial Workers of the World (est. 1905) (not formally anarchist, but has a significant anarchist presence)
- Anarchist Black Cross (est. 1906)
- Mexican Liberal Party (est. 1906)
- Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden (est. 1910)
- Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (est. 1910)
- Unione Sindacale Italiana (est. 1912)
- Black Guards (est. 1917)
- International Workers Association (est. 1922)
- Federación Anarquista Ibérica (est. 1927)
- Mexican Anarchist Federation (est. 1945)
- Fédération Anarchiste (est. 1945)
- Federazione Anarchica Italiana (est. 1945)
- Confédération nationale du travail (est. 1946)
- Japanese Anarchist Federation (est. 1946)
- Argentine Libertarian Federation (est. 1955)
- Uruguayan Anarchist Federation (est. 1956)
- International of Anarchist Federations (est. 1968)
- Confederación General del Trabajo (est. 1979)
- Solidarity Federation (est. 1979)
- Federazione dei Comunisti Anarchici (est. 1985)
- Alternative libertaire (est. 1991)
- Anarchist Federation (Britain and Ireland) (est. 1986)
- Zabalaza Anarchist Communist Front (est. 2003)
Anarchist organizations come in a variety of forms, largely based upon common anarchist principles of voluntary cooperation, mutual aid, and direct action. They are also largely informed by anarchist social theory and philosophy, tending towards participation and decentralization.
- Affinity group (e.g. Black bloc)
- Participatory organization
- Popular assembly
- Security culture
- Émile Armand
- Mikhail Bakunin
- Anselme Bellegarrigue
- Alexander Berkman
- Bob Black
- Alfredo M. Bonanno
- Murray Bookchin
- L. Susan Brown
- Chaz Bufe
- Judith Butler
- Albert Camus
- Kevin Carson
- Noam Chomsky
- Leon Czolgosz
- Buenaventura Durruti
- Sébastien Faure
- Francisco Ferrer Guardia
- Mahatma Gandhi
- Emma Goldman
- Paul Goodman
- Uri Gordon
- David Graeber
- Germaine Greer
- Daniel Guérin
- Ann Hansen
- Abbie Hoffman
- Derrick Jensen
- Ted Kaczynski
- Peter Kropotkin
- Gustav Landauer
- John Henry Mackay
- Ricardo Flores Magón
- Nestor Makhno
- Errico Malatesta
- Louise Michel
- Octave Mirbeau
- Johann Most
- Saul Newman
- Albert Parsons
- Fredy Perlman
- Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
- Rudolf Rocker
- Murray Rothbard
- Nicola Sacco
- Diego Abad de Santillán
- Jean-Paul Sartre
- August Spies
- Lysander Spooner
- Henry David Thoreau
- Leo Tolstoy
- Benjamin Tucker
- Bartolomeo Vanzetti
- Colin Ward
- Josiah Warren
- Simone Weil
- Oscar Wilde
- Peter Lamborn Wilson
- Robert Paul Wolff
- John Zerzan
- Guy Debord
- Friedrich Engels
- Michel Foucault
- Charles Fourier
- William Godwin
- Daniel de Leon
- Herbert Marcuse
- Sylvain Maréchal
- Karl Marx
- Friedrich Nietzsche
- Franz Oppenheimer
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau
- Max Stirner
- Raoul Vaneigem
- Gerrard Winstanley
- Zeno of Citium
- Communalism and democratic confederalism
- Libertarian Marxism
- Malatesta, Errico. "Towards Anarchism". MAN!. Los Angeles: International Group of San Francisco. OCLC 3930443. Agrell, Siri (2007-05-14). "Working for The Man". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2008-04-14. "Anarchism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. 2006. Archived from the original on 14 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-29. "Anarchism". The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: 14. 2005.
Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or government, is both possible and desirable.The following sources cite anarchism as a political philosophy: Mclaughlin, Paul (2007). Anarchism and Authority. Aldershot: Ashgate. p. 59. ISBN 0-7546-6196-2. Johnston, R. (2000). The Dictionary of Human Geography. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers. p. 24. ISBN 0-631-20561-6.
- Slevin, Carl. "Anarchism." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003.
- "The IAF – IFA fights for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical, political, social, religious, cultural or sexual.""Principles of The [[International of Anarchist Federations"]
- "Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint of government. Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations." Emma Goldman. "What it Really Stands for Anarchy" in Anarchism and Other Essays.
- Individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker defined anarchism as opposition to authority as follows "They found that they must turn either to the right or to the left, — follow either the path of Authority or the path of Liberty. Marx went one way; Warren and Proudhon the other. Thus were born State Socialism and Anarchism...Authority, takes many shapes, but, broadly speaking, her enemies divide themselves into three classes: first, those who abhor her both as a means and as an end of progress, opposing her openly, avowedly, sincerely, consistently, universally; second, those who profess to believe in her as a means of progress, but who accept her only so far as they think she will subserve their own selfish interests, denying her and her blessings to the rest of the world; third, those who distrust her as a means of progress, believing in her only as an end to be obtained by first trampling upon, violating, and outraging her. These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity. Good representatives of the first are seen in the Catholic Church and the Russian autocracy; of the second, in the Protestant Church and the Manchester school of politics and political economy; of the third, in the atheism of Gambetta and the socialism of the socialism off Karl Marg." Benjamin Tucker. Individual Liberty.
- Ward, Colin (1966). "Anarchism as a Theory of Organization". Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- Anarchist historian George Woodcock report of Mikhail Bakunin's anti-authoritarianism and shows opposition to both state and non-state forms of authority as follows: "All anarchists deny authority; many of them fight against it." (pg. 9)...Bakunin did not convert the League's central committee to his full program, but he did persuade them to accept a remarkably radical recommendation to the Berne Congress of September 1868, demanding economic equality and implicitly attacking authority in both Church and State."
- Brown, L. Susan (2002). "Anarchism as a Political Philosophy of Existential Individualism: Implications for Feminism". The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism and Anarchism. Black Rose Books Ltd. Publishing. p. 106.
- "That is why Anarchy, when it works to destroy authority in all its aspects, when it demands the abrogation of laws and the abolition of the mechanism that serves to impose them, when it refuses all hierarchical organization and preaches free agreement — at the same time strives to maintain and enlarge the precious kernel of social customs without which no human or animal society can exist." Peter Kropotkin. Anarchism: its philosophy and ideal
- "anarchists are opposed to irrational (e.g., illegitimate) authority, in other words, hierarchy — hierarchy being the institutionalisation of authority within a society." [http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/HTML/The_Anarchist_FAQ_Editorial_Collective__An_Anarchist_FAQ__03_17_.html#toc2 "B.1 Why are anarchists against authority and hierarchy?" in An Anarchist FAQ
- "ANARCHISM, a social philosophy that rejects authoritarian government and maintains that voluntary institutions are best suited to express man’s natural social tendencies." George Woodcock. "Anarchism" at The Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- "In a society developed on these lines, the voluntary associations which already now begin to cover all the fields of human activity would take a still greater extension so as to substitute themselves for the state in all its functions." [[Peter Kropotkin. “Anarchism” from the Encyclopædia Britannica]
- Slevin, Carl. "Anarchism". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003.
- Esenwein, George Richard "Anarchist Ideology and the Working Class Movement in Spain, 1868-1898" [p. 135]
- "The revolution abolishes private ownership of the means of production and distribution, and with it goes capitalistic business. Personal possession remains only in the things you use. Thus, your watch is your own, but the watch factory belongs to the people." Alexander Berkman. "What Is Communist Anarchism?" 
- From Politics Past to Politics Future: An Integrated Analysis of Current and Emergent Paradigms Alan James Mayne Published 1999 Greenwood Publishing Group 316 pages ISBN 0-275-96151-6. Books.google.com. 1999. ISBN 978-0-275-96151-0. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
- Anarchism for Know-It-Alls By Know-It-Alls For Know-It-Alls, For Know-It-Alls. Filiquarian Publishing, LLC. January 2008. ISBN 978-1-59986-218-7. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
- Fabbri, Luigi. "Anarchism and Communism." Northeastern Anarchist #4. 1922. 13 October 2002. 
- Makhno, Mett, Arshinov, Valevski, Linski (Dielo Trouda). "The Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists". 1926. Constructive Section: available here
- Morris, Andrew (2008). "Anarcho-capitalism". In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 13–14. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n8. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.
- Edward Stringham, Anarchy and the law: the political economy of choice, p. 51
- "Anarchism and the different Naturist views have always been related.""Anarchism – Nudism, Naturism" by Carlos Ortega at Asociacion para el Desarrollo Naturista de la Comunidad de Madrid. Published on Revista ADN. Winter 2003
- EL NATURISMO LIBERTARIO EN LA PENÍNSULA IBÉRICA (1890–1939) by Jose Maria Rosello
- "Anarchism – Nudism, Naturism" by Carlos Ortega at Asociacion para el Desarrollo Naturista de la Comunidad de Madrid. Published on Revista ADN. Winter 2003
- "In many of the alternative communities established in Britain in the early 1900s nudism, anarchism, vegetarianism and free love were accepted as part of a politically radical way of life. In the 1920s the inhabitants of the anarchist community at Whiteway, near Stroud in Gloucestershire, shocked the conservative residents of the area with their shameless nudity.""Nudism the radical tradition" by Terry Phillips
- George Woodcock. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (1962)
- "Resisting the Nation State, the pacifist and anarchist tradition" by Geoffrey Ostergaard
- Avrich, Paul (2006). The Russian Anarchists. Stirling: AK Press. p. 188. ISBN 1-904859-48-8.
- Peter Kropotkin, "Anarchism", Encyclopædia Britannica 1910
- Less Antman, The Dallas Accord is Dead, Lew Rockwell.com, May 12, 2008.
- "On Anarchism: An Interview with Judith Butler". Retrieved 10 September 2016.
- Snow, Edgar. The Message of Gandhi. 27 September March 1948. "Like Marx, Gandhi hated the state and wished to eliminate it, and he told me he considered himself 'a philosophical anarchist.'"
- Jesudasan, Ignatius (1987) A Gandhian theology of liberation. Gujarat Sahitya Prakash: Ananda India, pp. 236–37, ISBN 0883441543.
- "Greer on Revolution; Germaine on Love", Overland, Nos. 50/51, Autumn 1972.
- "Sartre at Seventy: An Interview by Jean-Paul Sartre and Michel Contat". The New York Review of Books. 7 August 1975. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- "R.A. Forum > Sartre par lui-même (Sartre by Himself)". Raforum.info. 28 September 1966. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- "Interview with Jean-Paul Sartre" in The Philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre, ed. P. A. Schilpp, p. 21.
- McLellan, David (1990). Utopian Pessimist: The Life and Thought of Simone Weil. Poseidon Press., p121
- Caplan, Bryan (2008). "Anarchism". In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 10–13. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.