Outline of ancient India

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient India:

Ancient India refers to India as it existed from pre-historic times (c. 7000 BCE or earlier) to the start of the Middle Ages (c. 500 CE).[1]

Geography[edit]

Government and politics[edit]

General history[edit]

Further information: Timeline of Indian history

Periodisation of Indian history[edit]

An elaborate periodisation may be as follows:[2]

  • Pre-classical period (c. 200 BCE-300 CE);
  • "Golden Age" (Gupta Empire) (c. 320-650 CE);
  • Late-Classical period (c. 650-1100 CE);
  • Medieval period (c. 1100-1500 CE);
  • Early Modern (c. 1500-1850);
  • Modern period (British Raj and independence) (from c. 1850).

Pre-history[edit]

Iron Age (c. 1200 – 272 BCE)[edit]

Second Urbanisation[edit]

Classical Age[edit]

Middle Ages (c. 500 – 1500)[edit]

Swami Vivekananda was a key figure in introducing Vedanta and Yoga in Europe and USA,[8] raising interfaith awareness and making Hinduism a world religion.[9]

Culture[edit]

Art[edit]

Language[edit]

Scripts[edit]

Religion[edit]

Science and technology[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Different periods are designated as "classical Hinduism":
    • Smart calls the period between 1000 BCE and 100 CE "pre-classical". It is the formative period for the Upanishads and Brahmanism[subnote 1] Jainism and Buddhism. For Smart, the "classical period" lasts from 100 to 1000 CE, and coincides with the flowering of "classical Hinduism" and the flowering and deterioration of Mahayana-buddhism in India.[4]
    • For Michaels, the period between 500 BCE and 200 BCE is a time of "Ascetic reformism",[5] whereas the period between 200 BCE and 1100 CE is the time of "classical Hinduism", since there is "a turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions".[6]
    • Muesse discerns a longer period of change, namely between 800 BCE and 200 BCE, which he calls the "Classical Period". According to Muesse, some of the fundamental concepts of Hinduism, namely karma, reincarnation and "personal enlightenment and transformation", which did not exist in the Vedic religion, developed in this time.[7]

Subnotes

  1. ^ Smart distinguishes "Brahmanism" from the Vedic religion, connecting "Brahmanism" with the Upanishads.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stein 2010, p. 38.
  2. ^ Michaels 2004.
  3. ^ Smart 2003, p. 52, 83-86.
  4. ^ Smart 2003, p. 52.
  5. ^ Michaels 2004, p. 36.
  6. ^ Michaels 2004, p. 38.
  7. ^ Muesse 2003, p. 14.
  8. ^ Georg, Feuerstein (2002). The Yoga Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 600. ISBN 3-935001-06-1. 
  9. ^ Clarke, Peter Bernard (2006). New Religions in Global Perspective. Routledge. p. 209. ISBN 0-7007-1185-6. 

Sources[edit]

  • Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press 
  • Khanna, Meenakshi (2007), Cultural History Of Medieval India, Berghahn Books 
  • Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004), A History of India, Routledge 
  • Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press 
  • Misra, Amalendu (2004), Identity and Religion: Foundations of Anti-Islamism in India, SAGE 
  • Muesse, Mark William (2003), Great World Religions: Hinduism 
  • Muesse, Mark W. (2011), The Hindu Traditions: A Concise Introduction, Fortress Press 
  • Smart, Ninian (2003), Godsdiensten van de wereld (The World's religions), Kampen: Uitgeverij Kok 
  • Stein, Burton (2010), A History of India, John Wiley & Sons 
  • Thapar, Romila (1978), Ancient Indian Social History: Some Interpretations (PDF), Orient Blackswan