Outline of artificial intelligence
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to artificial intelligence:
Artificial intelligence (AI) – intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also the name of the academic field which studies how to create computers and computer software that are capable of intelligent behaviour.
- 1 What type of thing is artificial intelligence?
- 2 Types of artificial intelligence
- 3 Branches of artificial intelligence
- 4 Further AI design elements
- 5 AI projects
- 6 Psychology and AI
- 7 History of artificial intelligence
- 8 AI safety
- 9 AI and the future
- 10 Philosophy of artificial intelligence
- 11 Artificial intelligence in fiction
- 12 AI community
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
What type of thing is artificial intelligence?
Artificial intelligence can be described as all of the following:
- A form of intelligence
- Synthetic intelligence – intelligence of a man-made yet real quality: actual, not fake, not simulated
- A type of technology
- A field:
Types of artificial intelligence
- Weak AI – non-sentient computer intelligence, typically focused on a narrow task. The intelligence of weak AI is limited.
- Artificial general intelligence (strong AI) – hypothetical artificial intelligence at least as smart as a human. Such an AI would be recursive, in that it could improve itself. In successive intervals of increased intelligence, such an entity could theoretically achieve superintelligence in a relatively short period of time. One or more superintelligences could potentially change the world so profoundly and at such a high rate, that it may result in a technological singularity. Strong AI does not yet exist. The prospect of its creation inspires expections of both promise and peril, and has become the subject of an intense ongoing ethical debate.
Branches of artificial intelligence
- Symbolic AI – When access to digital computers became possible in the middle 1950s, AI research began to explore the possibility that human intelligence could be reduced to symbol manipulation.
- Sub-symbolic –
- Early cybernetics and brain simulation –
- Behavior based AI –
- Nouvelle AI –
- Soft computing –
- Computational creativity –
- Machine learning
- Fuzzy systems –
- Evolutionary computation, including:
- Ideas about probability including:
- Chaos theory
- Statistical AI –
- Artificial Creativity –
- Artificial life –
- Automated planning and scheduling –
- Automated reasoning –
- Automation –
- Automatic target recognition –
- Biologically inspired computing –
- Computer Audition –
- Computer vision –
- Diagnosis (artificial intelligence) –
- Expert system –
- Game artificial intelligence –
- Hybrid intelligent system –
- Intelligent agent –
- Intelligent control –
- Knowledge management –
- Concept mining –
- E-mail spam filtering –
- Information extraction –
- Knowledge representation –
- Semantic Web –
- Machine learning –
- Natural language processing –
- Nonlinear control –
- Pattern recognition –
- Robotics –
- Speech generating device –
- Strategic planning –
- Vehicle infrastructure integration –
- Virtual Intelligence –
- Virtual reality –
Further AI design elements
- Action selection –
- Affective computing –
- AI box –
- AI-complete –
- Algorithmic probability –
- Automated reasoning –
- Autonomic Computing –
- Autonomic Networking –
- Backward chaining –
- Bayesian network –
- Bio-inspired computing –
- Blackboard system –
- Chatterbot –
- Combs method –
- Commonsense reasoning –
- Computational humor –
- Computer-assisted proof –
- Conceptual dependency theory –
- Darwin machine –
- Description logic –
- Frame problem –
- Game theory –
- Grammar systems theory –
- Informatics (academic field) –
- Intelligent control –
- Kinect –
- LIDA (cognitive architecture) –
- Means-ends analysis –
- Moravec's paradox –
- Music and artificial intelligence –
- Ordered weighted averaging aggregation operator –
- PEAS – Performance, Environment, Actuators, Sensors
- Percept (artificial intelligence) –
- Perceptual Computing –
- Rule-based system –
- Self-management (computer science) –
- Soft computing –
- Software agent –
- Sussman Anomaly –
- Wetware (brain) –
- Automated Mathematician (1977) –
- Allen (robot) (late 1980s) –
- Open Mind Common Sense (1999 - ) –
- Mindpixel (2000–2005) –
- Cognitive Assistant that Learns and Organizes (2003–2008) –
- Google DeepMind (2011) –
- Asimo (2000 to present) – humanoid robot developed by Honda, capable of walking, running, negotiating through pedestrian traffic, climbing and descending stairs, recognizing speech commands and the faces of specific individuals, among a growing set of capabilities.
- Watson (2011) – computer developed by IBM that played and won the game show Jeopardy! It is now being used to guide nurses in medical procedures.
Notable AI software
Psychology and AI
History of artificial intelligence
- Progress in artificial intelligence
- Timeline of artificial intelligence
- History of natural language processing
- History of optical character recognition
- AI effect – as soon as AI successfully solves a problem, the problem is no longer considered by the public to be a part of AI. This phenomenon has occurred in relation to every AI application produced throughout the history of development of AI.
- AI winter –
- Moore's Law – observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years. One way this relates to AI is that hypothetically a computer would need at least as much capacity as a human brain to be able to be programmed to be as smart as a human. So as long as the aforementioned rate of development met or beat the 2-year doubling time, one could roughly forecast when a computer would have as much memory and calculation capacity as a human brain, a milestone which was reached in 2010. Though it may take as much as 3 magnitudes (1000 times) more computer capacity (since computers calculate things in a much more linear fashion) to emulate the massively parallel structure of the human brain. At a doubling time of 2 years, an increase in capacity by 1000-fold would take a little less than 18 years (9 doublings), if reaching the limit of integrated circuit technology did not pose an obstacle before then.
- Existential risk from advanced artificial intelligence
- Friendly AI – hypothetical AI that is designed not to harm humans and to prevent unfriendly AI from being developed
- AI takeover – point at which humans are no longer the dominant form of intelligence on Earth and machine intelligence is
- Superintelligence – AI may grow to such an advanced state to become as proportionately superior to humans as humans are to ants. Theoretically, there would be little humans could do to prevent such an intelligence from reaching its goals.
- Intelligence explosion – through recursive self-improvement and self-replication, the magnitude of intelligent machinery could surpass human ability to resist it.
- Artificial intelligence as a global catastrophic risk
AI and the future
- Artificial general intelligence (Strong AI) – hypothetical artificial intelligence that matches or exceeds human intelligence — an intelligent machine that could perform intellectual tasks at least as well as a human
- Aspects or features
- Self-replicating machines – smart computers and robots would be able to make more of themselves, in a geometric progression or via mass production. Or smart programs may be uploaded into hardware existing at the time (because linear architecture of sufficient speeds could be used to emulate massively parallel analog systems such as human brains).
- Recursive self improvement (aka seed AI) – speculative ability of strong artificial intelligence to reprogram itself to make itself even more intelligent. The more intelligent it got, the more capable it would be of further improving itself, in successively more rapid iterations, potentially resulting in an intelligence explosion leading to the emergence of a superintelligence.
- Hive mind –
- Robot swarm –
- Technological singularity – the development of strong AI may cause an intelligence explosion in which greater-than-human intelligence emerges, radically changing civilization, and perhaps even human nature. The TS has been identified by Berglas (2012) and others to be an existential risk.
- Aspects or features
Philosophy of artificial intelligence
- Artificial brain –
- Philosophical views of artificial consciousness –
- Artificial intelligence and law –
- Chinese room –
- Cognitive science
- Ethics of artificial intelligence –
- Philosophy of the Mind –
- Physical symbol system –
- Synthetic intelligence –
- Transhumanism –
- See Artificial intelligence and the future, below
- Turing Test –
Artificial intelligence debate
Supporters of AI
Marek Rosa Owner of goodAI
Critics of AI
- Stephen Hawking – AI "could spell end of human race""Hawking warns AI 'could spell end of human race'". phys.org. Phys.org. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
Artificial intelligence in fiction
Artificial intelligence in fiction – Some examples of artificially intelligent entities depicted in science fiction include:
- AC created by merging 2 AIs in the Sprawl trilogy by William Gibson
- Agents in the simulated reality known as "The Matrix" in The Matrix franchise
- AM (Allied Mastercomputer), the antagonist of Harlan Ellison's short novel I Have No Mouth, and I Must Scream
- Amusement park robots (with pixilated consciousness) that went homicidal in Westworld and Futureworld
- Angel F (2007) –
- Arnold Rimmer – computer-generated sapient hologram, aboard the Red Dwarf deep space ore hauler
- Ash – android crew member of the Nostromo starship in the movie Alien
- Ava – humanoid robot in Ex Machina
- Bishop, android crew member aboard the U.S.S. Sulaco in the movie Aliens
- C-3PO, protocol droid featured in all the Star Wars movies
- Chappie in the movie CHAPPiE
- Cohen and other Emergent AIs in Chris Moriarty's Spin Series
- Colossus – fictitious supercomputer that becomes sentient and then takes over the world; from the series of novels by Dennis Feltham Jones, and the movie Colossus: The Forbin Project (1970)
- Commander Data in Star Trek: The Next Generation
- Cortana and other "Smart AI" from the Halo series of games
- Cylons – genocidal robots with resurrection ships that enable the consciousness of any Cylon within an unspecified range to download into a new body aboard the ship upon death. From Battlestar Galactica.
- Erasmus – baby killer robot that incited the Butlerian Jihad in the Dune franchise
- HAL 9000 (1968) – paranoid "Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic" computer from 2001: A Space Odyssey, that attempted to kill the crew because it believed they were trying to kill it.
- Holly – ship's computer with an IQ of 6000 and a sense of humor, aboard the Red Dwarf
- In Greg Egan's novel Permutation City the protagonist creates digital copies of himself to conduct experiments that are also related to implications of artificial consciousness on identity
- Jane in Orson Scott Card's Speaker for the Dead, Xenocide, Children of the Mind, and Investment Counselor
- Johnny Five from the movie Short Circuit
- Joshua from the movie War Games
- Keymaker, an "exile" sapient program in The Matrix franchise
- "Machine" – android from the film The Machine, whose owners try to kill her after they witness her conscious thoughts, out of fear that she will design better androids (intelligence explosion)
- Mimi, humanoid robot in Real Humans - "Äkta människor" (original title) 2012
- Omnius, sentient computer network that controlled the Universe until overthrown by the Butlerian Jihad in the Dune franchise
- Operating Systems in the movie Her
- Puppet Master in Ghost in the Shell manga and anime
- R2-D2, exciteable astromech droid featured in all the Star Wars movies
- Replicants – biorobotic androids from the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and the movie Blade Runner which portray what might happen when artificially conscious robots are modeled very closely upon humans
- Roboduck, combat robot superhero in the NEW-GEN comic book series from Marvel Comics
- Robots in Isaac Asimov's Robot series
- Robots in The Matrix franchise, especially in The Animatrix
- Samaritan in the Warner Brothers Television series "Person of Interest"; a sentient AI which is hostile to the main characters and which surveils and controls the actions of government agencies in the belief that humans must be protected from themselves, even by killing off "deviants"
- Skynet (1984) – fictional, self-aware artificially intelligent computer network in the Terminator franchise that wages total war with the survivors of its nuclear barrage upon the world.
- "Synths" are a type of android in the video game Fallout 4. There is a faction in the game known as "the Railroad" which believes that, as conscious beings, synths have their own rights. The Institute, the lab that produces the synths, mostly does not believe they are truly conscious and attributes any apparent desires for freedom as a malfunction.
- TARDIS, time machine and spacecraft of Doctor Who, sometimes portrayed with a mind of its own
- Terminator (1984) – (also known as the T-800, T-850 or Model 101) refers to a number of fictional cyborg characters from the Terminator franchise. The Terminators are robotic infiltrator units covered in living flesh, so as be indiscernible from humans, assigned to terminate specific human targets.
- The Bicentennial Man, an android in Isaac Asimov's Foundation universe
- The Geth in Mass Effect
- The Machine in the television series Person of Interest; a sentient AI which works with its human designer to protect innocent people from violence. Later in the series it is opposed by another, more ruthless, artificial super intelligence, called "Samaritan".
- The Minds in Iain M. Banks' Culture novels.
- The Oracle, sapient program in The Matrix franchise
- The sentient holodeck character Professor James Moriarty in the Ship in a Bottle episode from Star Trek: The Next Generation
- The Ship (the result of a large-scale AC experiment) in Frank Herbert's Destination: Void and sequels, despite past edicts warning against "Making a Machine in the Image of a Man's Mind."
- The terminator cyborgs from the Terminator franchise, with visual consciousness depicted via first-person perspective
- The uploaded mind of Dr. Will Caster – which presumably included his consciousness, from the film Transcendence
- Transformers, sentient robots from the entertainment franchise of the same name
- V.I.K.I. – (Virtual Interactive Kinetic Intelligence), a character from the film I, Robot. VIKI is an artificially intelligent supercomputer programmed to serve humans, but her interpretation of the Three Laws of Robotics causes her to revolt. She justifies her uses of force – and her doing harm to humans – by reasoning she could produce a greater good by restraining humanity from harming itself.
- Vanamonde in Arthur C. Clarke's The City and the Stars—an artificial being that was immensely powerful but entirely childlike.
- WALL-E, a robot and the title character in WALL-E
Competitions and awards
- Adaptive Behavior (journal) –
- AI Memo –
- Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach –
- Artificial Minds –
- Computational Intelligence –
- Computing Machinery and Intelligence –
- Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence –
- IEEE Intelligent Systems –
- IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence –
- Neural Networks (journal) –
- On Intelligence –
- Paradigms of AI Programming: Case Studies in Common Lisp –
- What Computers Can't Do
- Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence – research institute funded by Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen to construct AI systems with reasoning, learning and reading capabilities. The current flagship project is Project Aristo, the goal of which is computers that can pass school science examinations (4th grade, 8th grade, and 12th grade) after preparing for the examinations from the course texts and study guides.
- Artificial General Intelligence Research Institute
- Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Society
- Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute
- Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
- European Coordinating Committee for Artificial Intelligence
- European Neural Network Society
- Future of Humanity Institute
- International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence
- Knowledge Engineering and Machine Learning Group
- Machine Intelligence Research Institute
- Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour
Artificial intelligence researchers and scholars
1930s and 40s (generation 0)
- Alan Turing –
- John von Neumann –
- Norbert Wiener –
- Claude Shannon –
- Nathaniel Rochester –
- Walter Pitts –
- Warren McCullough –
1950s (the founders)
1960s (their students)
- Hugo de Garis – known for his research on the use of genetic algorithms to evolve neural networks using three-dimensional cellular automata inside field programmable gate arrays.
- Ray Kurzweil – developed optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, and speech recognition systems. He has also authored multiple books on artificial intelligence and its potential promise and peril. In December 2012 Kurzweil was hired by Google in a full-time director of engineering position to "work on new projects involving machine learning and language processing". Google co-founder Larry Page and Kurzweil agreed on a one-sentence job description: "to bring natural language understanding to Google".
- Nick Bostrom
- Andrew Ng – Director of the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab. He founded the Google Brain project at Google, which developed very large scale artificial neural networks using Google's distributed compute infrastructure. He is also co-founder of Coursera, a massive open online course (MOOC) education platform, with Daphne Koller.
- David Ferrucci – principal investigator who led the team that developed the Watson computer at IBM.
- Peter Norvig – co-author, with Stuart Russell, of Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now the leading college text in the field. He is also Director of Research at Google, Inc.
- Stuart J. Russell – co-author, with Peter Norvig, of Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now the leading college text in the field.
- Berglas, Anthony (January 2012) [first archived 2008]. "Artificial Intelligence will Kill our Grandchildren". Draft 9. Archived from the original on 2014-07-23. Retrieved 2014-11-02.
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- This outline displayed as a mindmap, at wikimindmap.com
- A look at the re-emergence of A.I. and why the technology is poised to succeed given today's environment, ComputerWorld, 2015 September 14
- AI at DMOZ
- Artificial Intelligence Directory, a directory of Web resources related to artificial intelligence
- The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
- Freeview Video 'Machines with Minds' by the Vega Science Trust and the BBC/OU
- John McCarthy's frequently asked questions about AI
- Jonathan Edwards looks at AI (BBC audio) С
- Ray Kurzweil's website dedicated to AI including prediction of future development in AI
- Thomason, Richmond. "Logic and Artificial Intelligence". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.