Outline of artificial intelligence

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to artificial intelligence:

Artificial intelligence (AI) – intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also the name of the scientific field which studies how to create computers and computer software that are capable of intelligent behaviour.

AI algorithms and techniques[edit]


Optimization search[edit]


Other symbolic knowledge and reasoning tools[edit]

Symbolic representations of knowledge

Unsolved problems in knowledge representation

Probabilistic methods for uncertain reasoning[edit]

Classifiers and statistical learning methods[edit]

Artificial neural networks[edit]

Biologically based or embodied[edit]

Cognitive architecture and multi-agent systems[edit]


Definition of AI[edit]

Classifying AI[edit]

Goals and applications[edit]

General intelligence[edit]

Reasoning and Problem Solving[edit]

Knowledge Representation[edit]



Natural language processing[edit]




Social intelligence[edit]

Game playing[edit]

Creativity, art and entertainment[edit]

Integrated AI systems[edit]

  • AIBO – Sony's robot dog. It integrates vision, hearing and motorskills.
  • Asimo (2000 to present) – humanoid robot developed by Honda, capable of walking, running, negotiating through pedestrian traffic, climbing and descending stairs, recognizing speech commands and the faces of specific individuals, among a growing set of capabilities.
  • MIRAGE – A.I. embodied humanoid in an augmented reality environment.
  • Cog – M.I.T. humanoid robot project under the direction of Rodney Brooks.
  • QRIO – Sony's version of a humanoid robot.
  • TOPIO, TOSY's humanoid robot that can play ping-pong with humans.
  • Watson (2011) – computer developed by IBM that played and won the game show Jeopardy! It is now being used to guide nurses in medical procedures.
  • Project Debater (2018) – artificially intelligent computer system, designed to make coherent arguments, developed at IBM's lab in Haifa, Israel.

Intelligent personal assistants[edit]

Intelligent personal assistant

Other applications[edit]


History by subject[edit]



Artificial intelligence in fiction – Some examples of artificially intelligent entities depicted in science fiction include:

  • AC created by merging 2 AIs in the Sprawl trilogy by William Gibson
  • Agents in the simulated reality known as "The Matrix" in The Matrix franchise
    • Agent Smith, began as an Agent in The Matrix, then became a renegade program of overgrowing power that could make copies of itself like a self-replicating computer virus
  • AM (Allied Mastercomputer), the antagonist of Harlan Ellison's short novel I Have No Mouth, and I Must Scream
  • Amusement park robots (with pixilated consciousness) that went homicidal in Westworld and Futureworld
  • Angel F (2007) –
  • Arnold Rimmer – computer-generated sapient hologram, aboard the Red Dwarf deep space ore hauler
  • Ash – android crew member of the Nostromo starship in the movie Alien
  • Ava – humanoid robot in Ex Machina
  • Bishop, android crew member aboard the U.S.S. Sulaco in the movie Aliens
  • C-3PO, protocol droid featured in all the Star Wars movies
  • Chappie in the movie CHAPPiE
  • Cohen and other Emergent AIs in Chris Moriarty's Spin Series
  • Colossus – fictitious supercomputer that becomes sentient and then takes over the world; from the series of novels by Dennis Feltham Jones, and the movie Colossus: The Forbin Project (1970)
  • Commander Data in Star Trek: The Next Generation
  • Cortana and other "Smart AI" from the Halo series of games
  • Cylons – genocidal robots with resurrection ships that enable the consciousness of any Cylon within an unspecified range to download into a new body aboard the ship upon death. From Battlestar Galactica.
  • Erasmus – baby killer robot that incited the Butlerian Jihad in the Dune franchise
  • HAL 9000 (1968) – paranoid "Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic" computer from 2001: A Space Odyssey, that attempted to kill the crew because it believed they were trying to kill it.
  • Holly – ship's computer with an IQ of 6000 and a sense of humor, aboard the Red Dwarf
  • In Greg Egan's novel Permutation City the protagonist creates digital copies of himself to conduct experiments that are also related to implications of artificial consciousness on identity
  • Jane in Orson Scott Card's Speaker for the Dead, Xenocide, Children of the Mind, and Investment Counselor
  • Johnny Five from the movie Short Circuit
  • Joshua from the movie War Games
  • Keymaker, an "exile" sapient program in The Matrix franchise
  • "Machine" – android from the film The Machine, whose owners try to kill her after they witness her conscious thoughts, out of fear that she will design better androids (intelligence explosion)
  • Mimi, humanoid robot in Real Humans – "Äkta människor" (original title) 2012
  • Omnius, sentient computer network that controlled the Universe until overthrown by the Butlerian Jihad in the Dune franchise
  • Operating Systems in the movie Her
  • Puppet Master in Ghost in the Shell manga and anime
  • R2-D2, exciteable astromech droid featured in all the Star Wars movies
  • Replicants – biorobotic androids from the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and the movie Blade Runner which portray what might happen when artificially conscious robots are modeled very closely upon humans
  • Roboduck, combat robot superhero in the NEW-GEN comic book series from Marvel Comics
  • Robots in Isaac Asimov's Robot series
  • Robots in The Matrix franchise, especially in The Animatrix
  • Samaritan in the Warner Brothers Television series "Person of Interest"; a sentient AI which is hostile to the main characters and which surveils and controls the actions of government agencies in the belief that humans must be protected from themselves, even by killing off "deviants"
  • Skynet (1984) – fictional, self-aware artificially intelligent computer network in the Terminator franchise that wages total war with the survivors of its nuclear barrage upon the world.
  • "Synths" are a type of android in the video game Fallout 4. There is a faction in the game known as "the Railroad" which believes that, as conscious beings, synths have their own rights. The institute, the lab that produces the synths, mostly does not believe they are truly conscious and attributes any apparent desires for freedom as a malfunction.
  • TARDIS, time machine and spacecraft of Doctor Who, sometimes portrayed with a mind of its own
  • Terminator (1984) – (also known as the T-800, T-850 or Model 101) refers to a number of fictional cyborg characters from the Terminator franchise. The Terminators are robotic infiltrator units covered in living flesh, so as be indiscernible from humans, assigned to terminate specific human targets.
  • The Bicentennial Man, an android in Isaac Asimov's Foundation universe
  • The Geth in Mass Effect
  • The Machine in the television series Person of Interest; a sentient AI which works with its human designer to protect innocent people from violence. Later in the series it is opposed by another, more ruthless, artificial super intelligence, called "Samaritan".
  • The Minds in Iain M. Banks' Culture novels.
  • The Oracle, sapient program in The Matrix franchise
  • The sentient holodeck character Professor James Moriarty in the Ship in a Bottle episode from Star Trek: The Next Generation
  • The Ship (the result of a large-scale AC experiment) in Frank Herbert's Destination: Void and sequels, despite past edicts warning against "Making a Machine in the Image of a Man's Mind."
  • The terminator cyborgs from the Terminator franchise, with visual consciousness depicted via first-person perspective
  • The uploaded mind of Dr. Will Caster – which presumably included his consciousness, from the film Transcendence
  • Transformers, sentient robots from the entertainment franchise of the same name
  • V.I.K.I. – (Virtual Interactive Kinetic Intelligence), a character from the film I, Robot. VIKI is an artificially intelligent supercomputer programmed to serve humans, but her interpretation of the Three Laws of Robotics causes her to revolt. She justifies her uses of force – and her doing harm to humans – by reasoning she could produce a greater good by restraining humanity from harming itself.
  • Vanamonde in Arthur C. Clarke's The City and the Stars—an artificial being that was immensely powerful but entirely childlike.
  • WALL-E, a robot and the title character in WALL-E
  • TAU in Netflix's original programming feature film 'TAU'--an advanced AI computer who befriends and assists a female research subject held against her will by an AI research scientist.

AI community[edit]

Open-source AI development tools[edit]


List of artificial intelligence projects

Competitions and awards[edit]

Competitions and prizes in artificial intelligence


List of important publications in computer science



Artificial intelligence researchers and scholars[edit]

1930s and 40s (generation 0)[edit]

1950s (the founders)[edit]

1960s (their students)[edit]




  • Yoshua Bengio
  • Hugo de Garis – known for his research on the use of genetic algorithms to evolve neural networks using three-dimensional cellular automata inside field programmable gate arrays.
  • Geoffrey Hinton
  • Yann LeCun – Chief AI Scientist at Facebook AI Research and founding director of the NYU Center for Data Science
  • Ray Kurzweil – developed optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, and speech recognition systems. He has also authored multiple books on artificial intelligence and its potential promise and peril. In December 2012 Kurzweil was hired by Google in a full-time director of engineering position to "work on new projects involving machine learning and language processing".[54] Google co-founder Larry Page and Kurzweil agreed on a one-sentence job description: "to bring natural language understanding to Google".

2000s on[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 59–189; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 79–164, 193–219
  2. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 59–93; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 79–121
  3. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 94–109; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 133–150
  4. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 217–225, 280–294; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 62–73
  5. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 382–387.
  6. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 110–116, 120–129;Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 127–133
  7. ^ Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 509–530.
  8. ^ Holland, John H. (1975). Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-262-58111-0.
  9. ^ Koza, John R. (1992). Genetic Programming (On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection). MIT Press. Bibcode:1992gppc.book.....K. ISBN 978-0-262-11170-6.
  10. ^ Poli, R.; Langdon, W. B.; McPhee, N. F. (2008). A Field Guide to Genetic Programming. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-4092-0073-4 – via gp-field-guide.org.uk.
  11. ^ Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 530–541.
  12. ^ Daniel Merkle; Martin Middendorf (2013). "Swarm Intelligence". In Burke, Edmund K.; Kendall, Graham (eds.). Search Methodologies: Introductory Tutorials in Optimization and Decision Support Techniques. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4614-6940-7.
  13. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 194–310; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 35–77
  14. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 204–233; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 45–50
  15. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 240–310; vLuger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 50–62
  16. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 526–527
  17. ^ "What is 'fuzzy logic'? Are there computers that are inherently fuzzy and do not apply the usual binary logic?". Scientific American. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  18. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 354–360; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 335–363
  19. ^ Luger & Stubblefield (2004, pp. 335–363) places this under "uncertain reasoning"
  20. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 349–354; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 248–258
  21. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 328–341.
  22. ^ Poole, David; Mackworth, Alan; Goebel, Randy (1998). Computational Intelligence: A Logical Approach. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 335–337. ISBN 978-0-19-510270-3.
  23. ^ a b Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 341–344.
  24. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 402–407.
  25. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 678–710; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. ~422–442
  26. ^ Breadth of commonsense knowledge:
  27. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 462–644; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 165–191, 333–381
  28. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 492–523; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. ~182–190, ≈363–379
  29. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 504–519; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. ~363–379
  30. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 712–724.
  31. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 597–600.
  32. ^ a b Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 551–557.
  33. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 549–551.
  34. ^ a b Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 584–597.
  35. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 600–604.
  36. ^ a b Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 613–631.
  37. ^ a b Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 631–643.
  38. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 712–754; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 453–541
  39. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 653–664; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 408–417
  40. ^ a b Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 736–748; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 453–505
  41. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 733–736.
  42. ^ a b Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 749–752.
  43. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, p. 718.
  44. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 739–748, 758; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 458–467
  45. ^ Hochreiter, Sepp; and Schmidhuber, Jürgen; Long Short-Term Memory, Neural Computation, 9(8):1735–1780, 1997
  46. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, p. 758; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 474–505
  47. ^ a b c d Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 474–505.
  48. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 744–748; Luger & Stubblefield 2004, pp. 467–474
  49. ^ Hinton, G. E. (2007). "Learning multiple layers of representation". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 11 (10): 428–434. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2007.09.004. PMID 17921042. S2CID 15066318.
  50. ^ "Artificial intelligence can 'evolve' to solve problems". Science | AAAS. 10 January 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  51. ^ Hinton 2007.
  52. ^ Developmental robotics:
  53. ^ a b c "The 6 craziest robots Google has acquired". Business Insider. Retrieved 2018-06-13.
  54. ^ Letzing, John (2012-12-14). "Google Hires Famed Futurist Ray Kurzweil". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2013-02-13.
  55. ^ Claire Miller and Nick Bilton (3 November 2011). "Google's Lab of Wildest Dreams". New York Times.


The two most widely used textbooks in 2008

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]