Outline of cryptography

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cryptography:

Cryptography (or cryptology) – practice and study of hiding information. Modern cryptography intersects the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce.

Essence of cryptography[edit]

Uses of cryptographic techniques[edit]

Branches of cryptography[edit]

History of cryptography[edit]





  • Monoalphabetic substitution


Modern symmetric-key algorithms[edit]

Stream ciphers

Stream ciphers

Block ciphers

Block ciphers

  • CAST-256 (CAST6) – 128-bit block; the successor to CAST-128 and a candidate for the AES competition
  • Polyalphabetic substitution machine cyphers
  • Enigma – WWII German rotor cypher machine—many variants, any user networks for most of the variants
  • Purple – highest security WWII Japanese Foreign Office cypher machine; by Japanese Navy Captain
  • SIGABA – WWII US cypher machine by William Friedman, Frank Rowlett et al.
  • TypeX – WWII UK cypher machine
  • Hybrid code/cypher combinations
  • JN-25 – WWII Japanese Navy superencyphered code; many variants
  • Naval Cypher 3 – superencrypted code used by the Royal Navy in the 1930s and into WWII

Modern Asymmetric-key algorithms[edit]

Asymmetric key algorithm

  • ACE-KEMNESSIE selection asymmetric encryption scheme; IBM Zurich Research
  • ECIESElliptic Curve Integrated Encryption System, Certicom Corporation
  • ECDHElliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman key agreement, CRYPTREC recommendation



Key authentication


Weak keys

Weak key

Cryptographic hash functions[edit]

Cryptographic hash function

  • MD5 – one of a series of message digest algorithms by Prof Ron Rivest of MIT; 128-bit digest
  • SHA-1 – developed at NSA 160-bit digest, an FIPS standard; the first released version was defective and replaced by this; NIST/NSA have released several variants with longer 'digest' lengths; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)


Cryptanalysis Classical


  • Symmetric algorithms
  • Hash functions:
  • Network attacks
  • External attacks

Robustness properties[edit]

Undeciphered historical codes and ciphers[edit]

Organizations and selection projects[edit]


Cryptography standards

General cryptographic

Open efforts

  • Data Encryption Standard (DES) – NBS selection process, ended 1976
  • RIPE – division of the RACE project sponsored by the European Union, ended mid-1980s
  • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) – a "break-off" competition sponsored by NIST, ended in 2001
  • NESSIE Project – an evaluation/selection program sponsored by the European Union, ended in 2002
  • eSTREAM– program funded by ECRYPT; motivated by the failure of all of the stream ciphers submitted to NESSIE, ended in 2008
  • CRYPTREC – evaluation/recommendation program sponsored by the Japanese government; draft recommendations published 2003
  • CrypTool – an e-learning freeware programme in English and German— exhaustive educational tool about cryptography and cryptanalysis

Influential cryptographers[edit]

List of cryptographers

Legal issues[edit]

Academic and professional publications[edit]

Further information: Important publications in cryptography & Books on cryptography

Allied sciences[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]