Outline of diabetes
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:
Diabetes – group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced, a condition called insulin resistance. The resultant high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
- 1 What type of thing is diabetes?
- 2 Types of diabetes
- 3 Signs and symptoms of diabetes
- 4 Related conditions
- 5 Preventing diabetes
- 6 Treating diabetes
- 7 History of diabetes
- 8 Persons influential in relation to diabetes
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
What type of thing is diabetes?
Diabetes can be described as a:
Types of diabetes
- Prediabetes –
- Main types of diabetes:
- Diabetes mellitus type 1 – disease that results in autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.
- Diabetes mellitus type 2 – metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.
- Disease of affluence – type 2 diabetes is one of the "diseases of affluence", which include mostly chronic non-communicable diseases for which personal lifestyles and societal conditions associated with economic development are believed to be important risk factors.
- Gestational diabetes –
- Other types of diabetes:
Signs and symptoms of diabetes
- Symptoms of prediabetes – prediabetes typically has no distinct signs or symptoms. Patients should monitor for signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus (see below).
Signs and symptoms of Type II diabetes mellitus
Symptoms of type II diabetes mellitus include:
- Constant hunger
- Unexplained weight loss
- Weight gain
- Flu-like symptoms, including weakness and fatigue
- Blurred vision
- Slow healing of cuts or bruises
- Tingling or loss of feeling in hands or feet
- Recurring gum or skin infections
- Recurring vaginal or bladder infections
Preventing diabetes mellitus type 1
Currently, there is no way to prevent diabetes mellitus type 1.
Preventing diabetes mellitus type 2
- Maintaining a healthy weight –
- Proper nutrition –
- Regular physical exercise – in addition to helping to maintain a healthy weight, sufficient vigorous physical exercise increases cells' sensitivity to insulin, and can thus prevent and possibly revert insulin resistance.
- Medication – specific medications have been shown to be able to prevent type 2 diabetes. However, the disease can often be delayed through proper nutrition and regular exercise.
- Monosaccharide (simple carbohydrate) –
- Insulin index
- Glycemic index
- Glycemic load
- Medical research related to low-carbohydrate diets
Low-carbohydrate dietary programs
- Atkins diet
- William Banting
- Richard K. Bernstein
- Diabetic diet (low-carb)
- CarbSmart ice cream products
- Ketogenic diet
- Low-glycemic index diet
- Meatatarian - all meat diet, generally not recommended by nutritionists.
- Montignac diet
- No-carbohydrate diet
- Pritikin diet
- Shirataki noodles
- South Beach Living
- Stillman diet
- Sugar Busters!
- Gary Taubes
- Zone diet
History of diabetes
Persons influential in relation to diabetes
- Paul Langerhans
- Joseph von Mering
- Oskar Minkowski
- Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer
- Frederick Banting
- Charles Herbert Best
- James Collip
- Harold Percival Himsworth
- Shoback, edited by David G. Gardner, Dolores (2011). Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. Chapter 17. ISBN 0-07-162243-8.
- "Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus". Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Abbas, Abul K.; Cotran, Ramzi S.; Robbins, Stanley L. (2005). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders. pp. 1194–1195. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1.
- Mayo Clinic Diabetes: "Prediabetes". . Accessed Jan. 27, 2009.
- Raina Elley C, Kenealy T (December 2008). "Lifestyle interventions reduced the long-term risk of diabetes in adults with impaired glucose tolerance". Evid Based Med. 13 (6): 173. doi:10.1136/ebm.13.6.173. PMID 19043031.
- Jamie Oliver's 2010 TED Talk: http://www.ted.com/talks/view/id/765
- Canada's Health Food Guide, Reference Page: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide-aliment/index-eng.php
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