Outline of diabetes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes mellitus (diabetes insipidus not included below):

Diabetes mellitus – group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond properly to the insulin that is produced,[1] a condition called insulin resistance. The resultant high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

What is diabetes mellitus?[edit]

Diabetes can be described as:

Types of diabetes mellitus[edit]

  • Prediabetes
  • Main types of diabetes:
    • Type 1 diabetes – disease that results in autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.[4]
    • Type 2 diabetes – metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.[5]
      • Disease of affluence – type 2 diabetes is one of the "diseases of affluence", which include mostly chronic non-communicable diseases for which personal lifestyles and societal conditions associated with economic development are believed to be important risk factors.
    • Gestational diabetes – Gestational diabetes, is a temporary condition that is first diagnosed during pregnancy. Like type 1 and type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes causes blood sugar levels to become too high. It involves an increased risk of developing diabetes for both mother and child.
  • Other types of diabetes:

Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus[edit]

  • Symptoms of prediabetes – prediabetes typically has no distinct signs or symptoms. Patients should monitor for signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus (see below).

Signs and symptoms of Type II diabetes mellitus[edit]

Symptoms of type II diabetes mellitus include:[6]

Causes of diabetes[edit]

Causes of diabetes mellitus type 1[edit]

Causes of diabetes mellitus type 2[edit]

Related conditions[edit]

Preventing diabetes mellitus[edit]

Preventing diabetes mellitus type 1[edit]

Currently, there is no known way to prevent diabetes mellitus type 1.

Preventing diabetes mellitus type 2[edit]

Preventing diabetes mellitus type 2 – entails a lifestyle with a routine, regime, or self care program that includes the following:

  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Proper nutrition
  • Regular physical exercise – in addition to helping to maintain a healthy weight, sufficient vigorous physical exercise increases cells' sensitivity to insulin, and can thus prevent and possibly revert insulin resistance.
  • Medication – specific medications have been shown to be able to prevent type 2 diabetes. However, the disease can often be delayed through proper nutrition and regular exercise.[7]

Treating diabetes mellitus[edit]

Low-carbohydrate diet[edit]

Low-carbohydrate dietary programs[edit]

History of diabetes mellitus[edit]

History of diabetes influence

Persons influential in relation to diabetes mellitus[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Shoback (2011). Gardner, David G. (ed.). Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology (9 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 978-0-07-162243-1.
  2. ^ "Can Diabetes be Cured Naturally? - Diabetes Destroyer Review". Diabetes Destroyer Review. 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
  3. ^ "Can Diabetes be Cured Naturally? | New Research to Cure Type 2 Diabetes- Start Reversing Today". curetype2diabetes.cf. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  4. ^ "Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus". Archived from the original on 2013-05-16. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
  5. ^ Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Abbas, Abul K.; Cotran, Ramzi S.; Robbins, Stanley L. (2005). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders. pp. 1194–1195. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1.
  6. ^ Mayo Clinic Diabetes: "Prediabetes". [1]. Accessed Jan. 27, 2009.
  7. ^ Raina Elley C, Kenealy T (December 2008). "Lifestyle interventions reduced the long-term risk of diabetes in adults with impaired glucose tolerance". Evid-Based Med. 13 (6): 173. doi:10.1136/ebm.13.6.173. PMID 19043031. S2CID 26714233.
  8. ^ Jamie Oliver's 2010 TED Talk: https://www.ted.com/talks/view/id/765
  9. ^ Canada's Health Food Guide, Reference Page: https://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide-aliment/index-eng.php

External links[edit]