Outline of diabetes
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes mellitus (diabetes insipidus not included below) :
Diabetes mellitus – group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond properly to the insulin that is produced, a condition called insulin resistance. The resultant high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
What type of thing is diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes can be described as a:
Types of diabetes mellitus
- Prediabetes (mellitus–
- Main types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes – disease that results in autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.
- Type 2 diabetes – metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.
- Disease of affluence – type 2 diabetes is one of the "diseases of affluence", which include mostly chronic non-communicable diseases for which personal lifestyles and societal conditions associated with economic development are believed to be important risk factors.
- Gestational diabetes – Gestational diabetes, is a temporary condition that is first diagnosed during pregnancy. Like type 1 and type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes causes blood sugar levels to become too high. It involves an increased risk of developing diabetes for both mother and child.
- Other types of diabetes:
Signs and symptoms of diabetes
- Symptoms of prediabetes – prediabetes typically has no distinct signs or symptoms. Patients should monitor for signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus (see below).
Signs and symptoms of Type II diabetes mellitus
Symptoms of type II diabetes mellitus include:
- Constant hunger
- Unexplained weight loss
- Weight gain
- Flu-like symptoms, including weakness and fatigue
- Blurred vision
- Slow healing of cuts or bruises
- Tingling or loss of feeling in hands or feet
- Recurring gum or skin infections
- Recurring vaginal or bladder infections
- Acetone odor during diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
Causes of diabetes
Causes of diabetes mellitus type 1
Causes of diabetes mellitus type 2
Preventing diabetes mellitus type 1
Currently, there is no known way to prevent diabetes mellitus type 1.
Preventing diabetes mellitus type 2
- Maintaining a healthy weight –
- Proper nutrition –
- Regular physical exercise – in addition to helping to maintain a healthy weight, sufficient vigorous physical exercise increases cells' sensitivity to insulin, and can thus prevent and possibly revert insulin resistance.
- Medication – specific medications have been shown to be able to prevent type 2 diabetes. However, the disease can often be delayed through proper nutrition and regular exercise.
Low-carbohydrate dietary programs
- Atkins diet
- William Banting
- Richard K. Bernstein
- Diabetic diet (low-carb)
- CarbSmart ice cream products
- Ketogenic diet
- Low-glycemic index diet
- Meatatarian - all meat diet, generally not recommended by nutritionists.
- Montignac diet
- No-carbohydrate diet
- Pritikin diet
- Shirataki noodles
- South Beach Living
- Stillman diet
- Sugar Busters!
- Gary Taubes
- Zone diet
History of diabetes
History of diabetes influence
Persons influential in relation to diabetes
- Paul Langerhans
- Joseph von Mering
- Oskar Minkowski
- Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer
- Frederick Banting
- Charles Herbert Best
- James Collip
- Harold Percival Himsworth
by DHEERAJ Pandalaneni
- Shoback, edited by David G. Gardner, Dolores (2011). Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. Chapter 17. ISBN 978-0-07-162243-1.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "Can Diabetes be Cured Naturally? - Diabetes Destroyer Review". Diabetes Destroyer Review. 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
- "Can Diabetes be Cured Naturally? | New Research to Cure Type 2 Diabetes- Start Reversing Today". curetype2diabetes.cf. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
- "Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus". Archived from the original on 2013-07-21. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Abbas, Abul K.; Cotran, Ramzi S.; Robbins, Stanley L. (2005). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders. pp. 1194–1195. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1.
- Mayo Clinic Diabetes: "Prediabetes". . Accessed Jan. 27, 2009.
- Raina Elley C, Kenealy T (December 2008). "Lifestyle interventions reduced the long-term risk of diabetes in adults with impaired glucose tolerance". Evid Based Med. 13 (6): 173. doi:10.1136/ebm.13.6.173. PMID 19043031. S2CID 26714233.
- Jamie Oliver's 2010 TED Talk: http://www.ted.com/talks/view/id/765
- Canada's Health Food Guide, Reference Page: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide-aliment/index-eng.php