Outline of geology

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geology:

Geology – one of the Earth sciences – is the study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere. The field of geology encompasses the composition, structure, physical properties, and history of Earth's components, and the processes by which it is shaped. Geologists typically study rock, sediment, soil, rivers, and natural resources.

Branches of geology[edit]

Geology applies primarily to Earth, but can be applied to any planet or extraterrestrial body.

Geology of Earth[edit]

Subdisciplines of geology:

  • Biogeology – The study of the interactions between the Earth's biosphere and the lithosphere
  • Economic geology – Science concerned with earth materials of economic value
  • Engineering geology – Application of geology to engineering practice
  • Environmental geology – Science of the practical application of geology in environmental problems.
  • Geochemistry – Science that applies chemistry to analyse geological systems
  • Geologic modelling – Applied science of creating computerized representations of portions of the Earth's crust
  • Geomorphology – The scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them
  • Geophysics – Physics of the Earth and its vicinity
  • Historical geology – The study of the geological history of Earth
  • Hydrogeology – The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater
  • Marine geology – The study of the history and structure of the ocean floor
  • Mineralogy – Scientific study of minerals and mineralised artifacts
  • Mining geology – The extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth
  • Paleontology – Scientific study of prehistoric life
  • Petroleum geology – The study of the origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels
  • Petrology – The branch of geology that studies the origin, composition, distribution and structure of rocks
  • Sedimentology – The study of natural sediments and of the processes by which they are formed
  • Stratigraphy – The study of rock layers and their formation
  • Structural geology – The science of the description and interpretation of deformation in the Earth's crust
  • Volcanology – The study of volcanoes, lava, magma and associated phenomena

Planetary geology[edit]

See also: Geology of solar terrestrial planets – Geology of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars and Ceres

Planetary geology – The geology of astronomical objects apparently in orbit around stellar objects

Principles of geology[edit]

Geological processes[edit]

History of geology[edit]

Geologic provinces[edit]

World geologic provinces
Oceanic crust
  0–20 Ma
  20–65 Ma
  >65 Ma
Geologic provinces
  Shield
  Orogen
  Basin
  Large igneous province
  Extended crust

Geologic province – A spatial entity with common geologic or geomorphic attributes

Geologic provinces based on origin:

  • Shield – A large stable area of exposed Precambrian crystalline rock
    • Platform – A continental area covered by relatively flat or gently tilted, mainly sedimentary strata
  • Orogen
    • Island arc – Arc-shaped archipelago usually along a subduction zone
    • Continental arc – A type of volcanic arc occurring along a continental margin
    • Forearc – The region between an oceanic trench and the associated volcanic arc
  • Oceanic basin – Large geologic basins that are below sea level
    • Cratonic basin – Old and stable part of the continental lithosphere
    • Foreland basin, also known as foredeep basin – A structural basin that develops adjacent and parallel to a mountain belt
  • Large igneous province – Huge regional accumulation of igneous rocks
  • Extended crust – The outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite
    • Rift – A linear zone where the Earth's crust is being pulled apart, and is an example of extensional tectonics

Plate tectonics[edit]

  • Plate tectonics – The scientific theory that describes the large-scale motions of Earth's lithosphere

Occupations in geology[edit]

The Dictionary of Occupational Titles lists the following occupations in Geology, which it describes as "concerned with the investigation of the composition, structure, and physical and biological history of the earth's crust and the application of this knowledge in such fields as archeology, mining, construction, and environmental impact":[1]

Influential geologists[edit]

Geology lists[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "024 OCCUPATIONS IN GEOLOGY". Dictionary Of Occupational Titles. Retrieved 2011-04-02.
  2. ^ "024.161-010 ENGINEER, SOILS (profess. & kin.)". Dictionary Of Occupational Titles. Retrieved 2011-04-02.
  3. ^ "024.167-010 GEOPHYSICAL-LABORATORY CHIEF (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: director, geophysical laboratory; engineer, geophysical laboratory; research engineer, geophysical laboratory; superintendent, geophysical laboratory". Dictionary Of Occupational Titles. Retrieved 2011-04-02.
  4. ^ "024.267-010 GEOLOGICAL AIDE (petrol. & gas)". Dictionary Of Occupational Titles. Retrieved 2011-04-02.
  5. ^ "024.381-010 LABORATORY ASSISTANT (petrol. & gas) alternate titles: analyst, geochemical prospecting; core analyst; laboratory tester". Dictionary Of Occupational Titles. Retrieved 2011-04-02.

External links[edit]