Outline of hydrology
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to hydrology:
- 1 What type of thing is hydrology?
- 2 Branches of hydrology
- 3 History of hydrology
- 4 Things studied by hydrology
- 5 Measurement tools
- 6 Modeling
- 7 Applications of hydrology
- 8 Hydrology organizations
- 9 Hydrology publications
- 10 Persons influential in the field of hydrology
- 11 Allied sciences
- 12 Hydrology lists
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
What type of thing is hydrology?
Hydrology can be described as all of the following:
- a branch of science
Essence of hydrology
Branches of hydrology
- Hydrometry – the measurement of the different components of the hydrologic cycle
- Chemical hydrology – the study of the chemical characteristics of water
- Ecohydrology – the study of interactions between organisms and the hydrologic cycle
- Hydrogeology – the study of the presence and movement of water in aquifers
- Hydroinformatics – the adaptation of information technology to hydrology and water resources applications
- Hydrometeorology – the study of the transfer of water and energy between land and water body surfaces and the lower atmosphere
- Isotope hydrology – the study of the isotopic signatures of water
- Surface hydrology – the study of hydrologic processes that operate at or near the Earth's surface
- Catchment hydrology – study of the governing processes in a given hydrologically-defined catchment
- Drainage basin management – covers water-storage, in the form of reservoirs, and flood-protection.
- Water quality – includes the chemistry of water in rivers and lakes, both of pollutants and natural solutes.
History of hydrology
Things studied by hydrology
Abstract concepts in hydrology
Phenomena studied by hydrology
Water movement pathways
Water cycle (aka "hydrological cycle")
- Above ground
- On ground
- Below ground
Physical things studied by hydrology
- Aquifer characterization
- Flow direction
- Vadose zone characterization
- Water level
- Channel shape
- Rain gauge – rainfall depth (unit) and intensity (unit time−1)
- Disdrometer – raindrop size, total precipitation depth and intensity
- Doppler weather radar – raindrop size, total precipitation depth and intensity, rain cloud reflectivity converted to precipitation intensity through calibration to rain gauges
- Wind profiler – precipitation vertical and horizontal motion, vertical cross-section of reflectivity and typing
- Frozen precipitation (on ground)
- Mean windspeed and direction
- Mean air temperature
- Air pressure
- Heat flux
- Evapotranspiration 
- Water budget method
- Water vapor transfer method
- Component analysis
- Bulk density & porosity
- Matric potential
- Hydraulic conductivity
- Piezometer –
- Soil moisture content (water volume percentage)
- Electrical conductivity – variety of probes used
- pH meter –
- Dissolved oxygen (DO)
- Nephelometer (Turbidimeter) –
- Water clarity
- Bed load
- Fick's law of diffusion –
- Chézy formula –
- Manning formula –
- Strahler number –
- Standard Step Method – computational technique for modeling steady state open channel surface profiles
- Canadian Land Surface Scheme
- CHyM – Cetemps Hydrological Model
- Flood Modeller Pro
- Groundwater model
- HBV hydrology model
- Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance
- Hydrological transport model
- Isochrone map
- MIKE 11
- MOHID water modelling system
- Runoff model (reservoir)
- Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model
- SWAT model
- Temporal Analyst
Applications of hydrology
Some examples of applications of hydrology:
- Analyzing the impacts of antecedent moisture on sanitary sewer systems
- Assessing contaminant transport risk and establishing environmental policy guidelines
- Assessing the impacts of natural and anthropogenic environmental change on water resources
- Designing bridges
- Designing dams for water supply or hydroelectric power generation
- Designing irrigation schemes and managing agricultural productivity
- Designing riparian restoration projects
- Designing sewers and urban drainage system
- Determining the agricultural water balance
- Determining the water balance of a region
- Fog collection
- Part of the hazard module in catastrophe modeling
- Predicting and mitigating flood, landslide and drought risk
- Predicting geomorphologic changes, such as erosion or sedimentation
- Providing drinking water
- Real-time flood forecasting and flood warning
International research bodies
National research bodies
- Centre for Ecology and Hydrology – UK
- Centre for Water Science, Cranfield University, UK
- eawag – aquatic research, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
- Institute of Hydrology, Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Germany
- United States Geological Survey – Water Resources of the United States
- NOAA's National Weather Service – Office of Hydrologic Development, USA
- US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center, USA
- Hydrologic Research Center, USA
- NOAA Economics and Social Sciences, USA
- University of Oklahoma Center for Natural Hazards and Disasters Research, USA
- National Hydrology Research Centre, Canada
- National Institute of Hydrology, India
National and international societies
- Geological Society of America (GSA) – Hydrogeology Division
- American Geophysical Union (AGU) – Hydrology Section
- National Ground Water Association (NGWA)
- American Water Resources Association
- Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI)
- International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS)
- Statistics in Hydrology Working Group (subgroup of IAHS)
- German Hydrological Society (DHG: Deutsche Hydrologische Gesellschaft)
- Italian Hydrological Society (SII-IHS) – http://www.sii-ihs.it
- Nordic Association for Hydrology
- British Hydrological Society
- Russian Geographical Society (Moscow Center) – Hydrology Commission
- International Association for Environmental Hydrology
- International Association of Hydrogeologists
Basin- and catchment-wide overviews
- Connected Waters Initiative, University of New South Wales – Investigating and raising awareness of groundwater and water resource issues in Australia
- Murray Darling Basin Initiative, Department of Environment and Heritage, Australia
- Hydrological Processes, ISSN 1099-1085 (electronic) 0885-6087 (paper), John Wiley & Sons
- Hydrology Research, ISSN 0029-1277, IWA Publishing (formerly Nordic Hydrology)
- Journal of Hydroinformatics, ISSN 1464-7141, IWA Publishing
- Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, ISSN 0733-9496, ASCE Publication
- Journal of Hydrology
- Water Research
- Water Resources Research
- Hydrological Sciences Journal - Journal of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) ISSN 0262-6667 (Print), ISSN 2150-3435 (Online)
Persons influential in the field of hydrology
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Ven Te Chow, Professor of Hydraulic Engineering, University of Illinois. Most noted for the 1964 compendium of water resources technology and methods titled "Handbook of Applied Hydrology", published by McGraw-Hill Book Company. Library of Congress Catalogue number 63-13931.
- Climatology –
- Environmental engineering –
- Environmental Engineering Science –
- Geomorphology –
- Hydroacoustics –
- Hydrography –
- Drainage basins by area – largest hydrologically defined watersheds in the world
- Floods – chronological and geographic list of major floods worldwide
- Waterways – worldwide listing of waterbodies classified as rivers, canals, estuarys, and firths
- Other water-related fields
- Oceanography – more general study of water in the oceans and estuaries.
- Meteorology – more general study of the atmosphere and of weather, including precipitation as snow and rainfall.
- Limnology – study of inland waters (running and standing waters, both fresh and saline, natural or man-made), including their biological, chemical, physical, geological, and other attributes. This includes the study of lakes and ponds, rivers, springs, streams and wetlands.
- Water resources – sources of water that are useful or potentially useful. Hydrology studies the availability of those resources, but usually not their uses.
- Western, Andrew W. (2005). "Principles of Hydrological Measurements". In Anderson, Malcolm G. Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences. 1. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp. 75–94.
- Shuttleworth, W. James (January–February 2008). "Evapotranspiration Measurement Methods" (PDF). Southwest Hydrology. Tucson, AZ. 7 (1): 22–23. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
- "International Hydrological Programme (IHP)". IHP. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- "International Water Management Institute (IWMI)". IWMI. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education". UNIESCO-IHE. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "CEH Website". Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Cranfield Water Science Institute". Cranfield University. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Eawag aquatic research". Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Professur für Hydrologie". University of Freiburg. 23 February 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Water Resources of the United States". USGS. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Office of Hydrologic Development". National Weather Service. NOAA. 28 October 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Hydrologic Engineering Center". US Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Hydrologic Research Center". Hydrologic Research Center. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "NOAA Economics and Social Sciences". NOAA Office of Program Planning and Integration. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Center for Natural Hazard and Disasters Research". University of Oklahoma. 17 June 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "National Hydrology Research Centre (Saskatoon, SK)". Environmental Science Centres. Environment Canada. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "National Institute of Hydrology (Roorkee), India". NIH Roorkee. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Hydrogeology Division". The Geological Society of America. 10 September 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Welcome to AGU's Hydrology (H) Section". American Geophysical Union. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "National Ground Water Association". Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "American Water Resources Association". 2 January 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "CUAHSI". Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS)". Associations. International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. 1 December 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "International Association of Hydrological Sciences". Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "International Commission on Statistical Hydrology". STAHY. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- Deutsche Hydrologische Gesellschaft, accessed 2 September 2013
- Nordic Association for Hydrology, accessed 2 September 2013
- "The British Hydrological Society". Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- Гидрологическая комиссия [Hydrological Commission] (in Russian). Russian Geographical Society. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Hydroweb". The International Association for Environmental Hydrology. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "International Association of Hydrogeologists". Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- "Connected Waters Initiative (CWI)". University of New South Wales. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Integrated Water Resource Management in Australia: Case studies – Murray-Darling Basin initiative". Australian Government, Department of the Environment. Australian Government. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- Wetzel, R.G. (2001) Limnology: Lake and River Ecosystems, 3rd ed. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-744760-1