Outline of sports
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to sports:
Sport – a physical activity that is governed by a set of rules or customs and often engaged in competitively, sports can be played on land, in water and in the air.
What is a sport?
Sports can be described as all of the following:
- Entertainment – Any sport that includes spectators, either free or paid admission, with no pre-scripted plot of the final outcome. The athletics might also get entertained by complete sports objective.
- Exercise – some sports are physical exercise while others are mental exercise.
Types of sports
List of sports
Sport by region
- Central Asia
- East Asia
- North Asia
- Southeast Asia
- South Asia
- West Asia
Caucasus (a region considered to be in both Asia and Europe, or between them)
- North Caucasus
- South Caucasus
- Akrotiri and Dhekelia • Åland • Albania • Andorra • Armenia • Austria • Azerbaijan • Belarus • Belgium • Bosnia and Herzegovina • Bulgaria • Croatia • Cyprus • Czech Republic • Denmark • Estonia • Faroe Islands • Finland • France • Georgia • Germany • Gibraltar • Greece • Guernsey • Hungary • Iceland • Ireland • Isle of Man • Italy • Jersey • Kazakhstan • Kosovo • Latvia • Liechtenstein • Lithuania • Luxembourg • Macedonia • Malta • Moldova (including disputed Transnistria) • Monaco • Montenegro • Netherlands • Norway • Poland • Portugal • Romania • Russia • San Marino • Serbia • Slovakia • Slovenia • Spain • Svalbard • Sweden • Switzerland • Turkey • Ukraine
- United Kingdom
- Vatican City
- Alabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Connecticut • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Idaho • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Montana • Kansas • Kentucky • Louisiana • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Mississippi • Missouri • Nebraska • Nevada • New Hampshire • New Jersey • New Mexico • New York • North Carolina • North Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Pennsylvania • Rhode Island • South Carolina • South Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Utah • Vermont • Virginia • Washington • West Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming
- District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.)
- Anguilla • Antigua and Barbuda • Aruba • Bahamas • Barbados • Bermuda • British Virgin Islands • Cayman Islands • Cuba • Dominica • Dominican Republic • Grenada • Haiti • Jamaica • Montserrat • Netherlands Antilles • Puerto Rico • Saint Barthélemy • Saint Kitts and Nevis • Saint Lucia • Saint Martin • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines • Trinidad and Tobago • Turks and Caicos Islands • United States Virgin Islands
- Oceania (includes the continent of Australia)
- Argentina • Bolivia • Brazil • Chile • Colombia • Ecuador • Falkland Islands • Guyana • Paraguay • Peru • Suriname • Uruguay • Venezuela
History of sports
- Sports history organizations
- History of American football
- History of archery
- History of association football
- History of Australian rules football
- History of baseball
- History of basketball
- History of chess
- History of cricket
- History of cue sports
- History of curling
- History of cycling
- History of field hockey
- History of figure skating
- History of Formula One
- History of hang gliding
- History of the Gaelic Athletic Association
- History of hurling
- History of lacrosse
- History of martial arts
- History of netball
- History of orienteering
- History of professional wrestling
- History of rodeo
- History of roller derby
- History of rowing
- History of rugby league
- History of rugby union
- History of skiing
- History of snooker
- History of surfing
- History of swimming
- History of tennis
- History of water polo
- History of wrestling
Sports in court
- American football
- American Needle, Inc. v. National Football League
- Two cases that involved the trademark rights of the Washington Redskins:
- NCAA v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma
- Association football
- Barry Bonds perjury case
- Federal Baseball Club v. National League
- Flood v. Kuhn
- Seitz decision
- Toolson v. New York Yankees
- Other sports
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (July 2017)
Sports and media
- Broadcasting of sports events
- Sports Emmy Award
- List of sports films
- Sports journalism
- Sports radio
- World record
Sports television programs
Sports ethics and conduct
- Racism in sport
- Violence in sports
Sports venue features
- Club seating
- Field house
- Leisure centre
- Luxury box
- Palace of Sports
- Personal seat license
- Turf management
- Fan loyalty
- National sport
- Nudity in sport
- Performance art
- Sports memorabilia
- Sporting club
- List of sports attendance figures
- List of attendance figures at domestic professional sports leagues
Sports and politics
- Nationalism and sport
- Ministry of Sports
- Racism in sport
- Sport policies of the Arab League
- Sport policies of the European Union
- International sport
- Multi-sport event
- National championship
- Olympic Games
- Sports league
- World championship
- List of professional sports leagues
Sports governing bodies
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2009)
World governing bodies of various notable sports:
- The Olympic Games: International Olympic Committee (IOC)
- Baseball: International Baseball Federation (IBAF), but several countries/regions have their own professional bodies with rules variations, including Cuba, US/Canada, and Japan
- Basketball: FIBA (International Basketball Federation), but national pro leagues may diverge from its rules, as in the US
- Cricket: International Cricket Council (ICC)
- Cue sports: World Confederation of Billiards Sports:
- Football variants have many governing bodies, with widely divergent rules:
- Association football (soccer): FIFA
- Gridiron football is divided in into:
- Rugby football is divided into two "codes" or sets of rules:
- Australian rules football: AFL Commission
- Gaelic football: Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA)
- International-rules football: A conference of the AFL and GAA
- Golf: International Golf Federation (IGF)
- Ice hockey: International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF)
- Motor racing:
- Tennis: International Tennis Federation (ITF)
- Underwater sports
Sociology of sport
The sociology of sport is a subfield of sociology which aims to study sports through the lense of interactions between different groups and cultures. The field has also investigated how various gender divides in sports can influence feminist movements.
Sport psychology is the study of how psychological factors can impact engagement in professional and recreational sports, as well as how sports impact an athlete's psychological state. After becoming popular in the early 20th century, it is now a recognized scientific field which is relevant to many different sports. Modern sports psychologists often use a combination of goal setting, visualization techniques and preperformance routines to help athletes achieve their goals.
- Outline of association football
- Outline of auto racing
- Outline of baseball
- Outline of basketball
- Outline of bodybuilding
- Outline of bowling
- Outline of boxing
- Outline of canoeing and kayaking
- Outline of cue sports
- Outline of cycling
- Outline of exercise
- Outline of fencing
- Outline of floorball
- Outline of golf
- Outline of gridiron football
- Outline of gymnastics
- Outline of hockey
- Outline of lacrosse
- Outline of martial arts
- Outline of motorcycling
- Outline of the Olympics
- Outline of rugby
- Outline of rugby league
- Outline of skateboarding
- Outline of skiing
- Outline of softball
- Outline of sports car racing
- Kazakhstan is sometimes considered a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe; population and area figures are for Asian portion only.
- The state is commonly known as simply "China", which is subsumed by the eponymous entity and civilization (China).
- Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the PRC.
- Macau is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the PRC.
- Under the de facto control of the Republic of China (ROC) government, commonly referred to as Taiwan. Claimed in whole by the PRC; see political status of Taiwan.
- Russia is a transcontinental country; population and area figures are for Asian portion only.
- Excludes Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australian external territories in the Indian Ocean southwest of Indonesia).
- General Population Census of Cambodia 2008 - Provisional population totals, National Institute of Statistics, Ministry of Planning, released 3 September 2008
- East Timor is often considered a transcontinental country in Southeastern Asia and Oceania.
- Indonesia is often considered a transcontinental country in Southeastern Asia and Oceania
- Includes Jammu and Kashmir, a contested territory among India, Pakistan, and the PRC.
- Armenia is sometimes considered a transcontinental country physiographically in Western Asia, it has historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe.
- Azerbaijan is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Eastern Europe; population and area figures are for Asian portion only. Figures include Nakhchivan, an autonomous exclave of Azerbaijan bordered by Armenia, Iran, and Turkey.
- The island of Cyprus is sometimes considered a transcontinental territory in the Eastern Basin of the Mediterranean Sea south of Turkey, it has historical and socio-political connections with Europe. The U.N. considers Cyprus to be in Western Asia, while the C.I.A. considers it to be in the Middle East.
- Georgia is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Eastern Europe; population and area figures are for the Asian portion only.
- Gaza and West Bank, collectively referred to as the "Occupied Palestinian Territory" by the UN, are territories partially occupied by Israel but under de facto administration of the Palestinian National Authority.
- Turkey is generally considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Southern Europe; population and area figures are for Asian portion only, excluding all of Istanbul.
- The use and scope of this term varies. The UN designation for this subregion is "Australia and New Zealand."
- Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands are Australian external territories in the Indian Ocean southwest of Indonesia.
- New Zealand is often considered part of Polynesia rather than Australasia.
- Excludes parts of Indonesia, island territories in Southeast Asia (UN region) frequently reckoned in this region.
- Indonesia is generally considered a territory of Southeastern Asia (UN region); wholly or partially, it is also frequently included in Australasia or Melanesia. Figures include Indonesian portion of New Guinea (Irian Jaya) and Maluku Islands.
- Papua New Guinea is often considered part of Australasia as well as Melanesia.
- Excludes the US state of Hawaii, which is distant from the North American landmass in the Pacific Ocean, and Easter Island, a territory of Chile in South America.
- Macri, Kenneth J. (2012). "Not Just a Game: Sport and Society in the United States". Inquiries Journal. 4 (08).
- Hayhurst, Lyndsay MC (2011-04-01). "Corporatising Sport, Gender and Development: postcolonial IR feminisms, transnational private governance and global corporate social engagement". Third World Quarterly. 32 (3): 531–549. doi:10.1080/01436597.2011.573944. ISSN 0143-6597.
- Weinberg, Robert Stephen (2011). Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-1-4504-0038-1.
- Fuchs, Alfred H. (1998). "Psychology and "The Babe"". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. 34 (2): 153–165. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6696(199821)34:23.0.CO;2-T. ISSN 1520-6696.
- Vealey, Robin S. (2005). Coaching for the Inner Edge. Fitness Information Technology. ISBN 978-1-885693-59-4.
- Williams, Jean Marie (2006). Applied Sport Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-284383-5.
- Ravizza K, Hanson T. (1995). Heads up baseball: Playing the game one pitch at a time. Lincolmwood, IL: Masters Press.