Outline of the Byzantine Empire

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Byzantine Empire:

Byzantine Empire (or Byzantium) – the Constantinople-centred Roman Empire of the Middle Ages. It is also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, primarily in the context of Late Antiquity, while the Roman Empire was still administered with separate eastern and western political centres. In its own time, there was no such thing as "the Byzantine Empire," there was just the ongoing Roman Empire; "Byzantine Empire" is a scholarly term of convenience to differentiate the empire from its earlier existence during classical antiquity before the western half collapsed (see decline of the Roman Empire). Its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, Basileia Rhōmaiōn;[1] Latin: Imperium Romanum) or Romania (Ῥωμανία).[2] After the Western Roman Empire fragmented and collapsed in the 5th century, the eastern half continued to thrive, existing for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During much of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe.

The Eastern Roman Empire (purple) and its vassals (pink) in 555 AD during the reign of Justinian I. The vassals are the Kingdom of Lazica and the Abasgians (top), and the Ghassanids (east). This was the Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent.

Nature of the Byzantine Empire[edit]

The Byzantium Empire can be described as all of the following:

  • Empire
  • Eponym for "Roman Empire" or "Romania" (the self-identifying short-form name of the later Roman Empire and the East Roman or Byzantine Empire)

Geography of the Byzantine Empire[edit]

Regions of the Byzantine Empire[edit]

Administrative divisions of the Byzantine Empire[edit]

Provinces of the Byzantine Empire[edit]
Themes of the Byzantine Empire[edit]
Cities of the Byzantine Empire[edit]

Affiliated polities[edit]

Demography of the Byzantine Empire[edit]

Government and politics of the Byzantine Empire[edit]

Political institutions of the Byzantine Empire[edit]

Political institutions of the Byzantine Empire

Byzantine law[edit]

Byzantine law

Military of the Byzantine Empire[edit]

Military of the Byzantine Empire

Byzantine armed forces[edit]

Military conflict[edit]

General history of the Byzantine Empire[edit]

History of the Byzantine Empire

Military history of the Byzantine Empire[edit]

Byzantine historiography[edit]

Works on Byzantine history[edit]

Culture of the Byzantine Empire[edit]

Byzantine culture

Religion in the Byzantine Empire[edit]

Byzantine language[edit]

Byzantine economy[edit]

Byzantine science and technology[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Kazhdan & Epstein 1985, p. 1.
  2. ^ Millar 2006, pp. 2, 15; James 2010, p. 5; Freeman 1999, pp. 431, 435–437, 459–462; Baynes & Moss 1948, p. xx; Ostrogorsky 1969, p. 27; Kaldellis 2007, pp. 2–3; Kazhdan & Constable 1982, p. 12; Norwich 1998, p. 383.

External links[edit]

Byzantine studies, resources and bibliography