Outremer (French: outre-mer meaning "overseas"), was a general name used for the Crusader states; it originated after victories of Europeans in the First Crusade and was applied to the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli, and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. During the Renaissance, the term was later often equated to the area of the Levant.
In the Chanson de Roland, "Outremer" is used as the name of a fictional Muslim country. It is identified as one of the many countries participating in the general mobilization of the Muslim world against Christianity at the climax of the plot.
The modern term outre-mer, spelled with a hyphen and equally meaning "overseas," is used by the French government for the overseas departments and territories of France (in French: Départements d'outre-mer – Territoires d'outre-mer or DOM – TOM, collectively Pays et territoires d'outre-mer (PTOM)).
- In Monsieur, or The Prince of Darkness (1974), Lawrence Durrell's first novel of The Avignon Quintet, the first section is entitled "Outremer" and is set in Provence.
- David Nicolle: Knight of Outremer 1187–1344 AD, Warrior No. 18. Osprey Publishing, Oxford 2003. ISBN 1-85532-555-1.
- Robert E. Howard: Hawks of Outremer, West Kingston, Rhode Island: Donald M. Grant, 1979.
- Sharon Kay Penman : "Lionheart", G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York 2011. Marian Wood Books/Putnam, London 2011. ISBN 978-0-399-15785-1.
In "Lionheart", the protagonists are introduced sailing to Outremer. The novel centers around Richard the Lionheart's Crusades in the Holy Land.
- "The French of Outremer", Medieval Studies, Fordham University
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