Outremer (French: outre-mer), for "overseas", was a general name given to the Crusader states established after the First Crusade: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The name was often equated to the Levant of Renaissance. The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia had its origins before the Crusades, but was granted the status of a kingdom by Pope Innocent III, and later became fully westernised by the French House of Lusignan.
In the Chanson de Roland, "Outremer" is used as the name of a Muslim country - one of the many countries participating in the general mobilization of the Muslim World against Christianity at the climax of the plot.
The modern term outre-mer, spelled with a hyphen and equally meaning "overseas", is notably used for the overseas departments and territories of France (In French: Départements d'outre-mer – Territoires d'outre-mer or DOM – TOM, collectively Pays et territoires d'outre-mer (PTOM)).
- David Nicolle: Knight of Outremer 1187-1344 AD, Warrior No. 18. Osprey Publishing, Oxford 2003. ISBN 1-85532-555-1.
- Robert E. Howard: Hawks of Outremer, Donald M. Grant, Publisher, West Kingston, Rhode Island 1979.
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