Outside (David Bowie album)
|Studio album by|
|Released||25 September 1995|
|Recorded||March 1994 – February 1995|
|David Bowie chronology|
|David Bowie studio albums chronology|
|Singles from Outside|
1. Outside (subtitled The Nathan Adler Diaries: A Hyper-cycle) is the nineteenth studio album by English recording artist David Bowie. It was released on 25 September 1995 through Arista Records, BMG, and RCA Records in Europe and Virgin Records in the United States. It marked Bowie's reunion with Brian Eno, whom he had worked with among others on his Berlin Trilogy in the 1970s. Outside centres on the characters of a dystopian world on the eve of the 21st century. The album put Bowie back into the mainstream scene of rock music with its singles "The Hearts Filthy Lesson", "Strangers When We Meet", and "Hallo Spaceboy" (remixed by Pet Shop Boys).
History and development
Outside marked the reconnection of Bowie and Brian Eno, who had not worked with each other since the late 1970s, on Bowie's "Berlin Trilogy". They met at Bowie's wedding to Iman Abdulmajid in 1992, where they each played pieces of their own music at the wedding reception and delighted at the "ebb and flow" of couples on the dance floor. At that point, Bowie knew "we were both interested in nibbling at the periphery of the mainstream rather than jumping in. We sent each other long manifestoes about what was missing in music and what we should be doing. We decided to really experiment and go into the studio with not even a gnat of an idea." Bowie and Eno visited the Gugging psychiatric hospital near Vienna, Austria, in early 1994 and interviewed and photographed its patients, who were famous for their "Outsider art". One of the album's songs, "I'm Deranged", was directly influenced by one of the inmates Bowie interviewed at the hospital. Bowie and Eno brought some of that art back with them into the studio as they worked together in March 1994, coming up with a three-hour piece that was mostly dialogue. Late in 1994, Q magazine asked Bowie to write a diary for 10 days, to be later published in the magazine, but Bowie, fearful his diary would be boring ("...going to a studio, coming home and going to bed"), instead wrote a diary for one of the fictional characters (Nathan Adler) from his earlier improvisation with Eno. Bowie said "Rather than 10 days, it became 15 years in his life!" This became the basis for the story of 1. Outside.
As a result, unlike for some of Bowie's previous albums, not a single song, save for "Strangers When We Meet", was written prior to the band going into the studio. Instead, Bowie wrote many songs alongside the band in improvised sessions. Bowie and Eno also continued the experimental songwriting techniques they had started using back during the Berlin Trilogy. In 1995, while talking to the press about the album, Bowie said "What Brian did, which was really useful, is he provided everybody with flash cards at the beginning of the day. On each one, a character was written, like 'You are the disgruntled member of a South African rock band. Play the notes that were suppressed.' ... Because that set the tone for the day, the music would take on all those obscure areas. And it would very rarely lapse into the cliché."
The "random cutups" from the Adler story that are part of the album's lyrics and liner notes were written by Bowie, who typed them into his Mac computer and then ran a custom program called the Verbasizer. The Verbasizer was a program written by Gracenote co-founder Ty Roberts, the program would cut up and reassemble Bowie's words electronically, much like he had done with paper, scissors and glue back in the 1970s. He would then look at the lyrics while the band played a song and decide "whether I was going to sing, do a dialogue, or become a character. I would improvise with the band, really fast on my feet, getting from one line to another and seeing what worked." Bowie claimed that it took about three and a half hours using this method to create "virtually the entire genesis" of the album Outside.
At nearly 75 minutes, the album is one of Bowie's longest. When it was released, Bowie knew that could be a problem. He said, "as soon as I released that I thought, 'It's much too fucking long. It's gonna die.' There's too much on it. I really should have made it two CDs."
Concept and themes
The liner notes feature a short story by Bowie titled "The diary of Nathan Adler or the art-ritual murder of Baby Grace Blue: A non-linear Gothic Drama Hyper-cycle.", which outlines a somewhat dystopian version of the year 1999 in which the government, through its arts commission, had created a new bureau to investigate the phenomenon of Art Crime. In this future, murder and mutilation of bodies had become a new underground art craze. The main character, Nathan Adler, was in the business of deciding what of this was legally acceptable as art and what was, in a word, trash. The album is filled with references to characters and their lives as he investigates the complicated events leading up to the murder of a fourteen-year-old girl. One is led to assume that Bowie's main character, Nathan Adler, works for the British government due to several references to the cities of London and Oxford, but in the liner notes these are revealed to be, at least in some cases, London, Ontario, and Oxford, New Jersey, indicating that the entire story may take place in North America—or, indeed, that the distinction between the two places has become blurred and indistinguishable.
Bowie would claim that the album has "strong smatterings of Diamond Dogs ... The idea of this post-apocalyptic situation is there, somehow. You can kind of feel it." In interviews, Bowie remarked that the album was meant to reflect the anxiety of the last five years of the millennium, saying "Overall, a long-term ambition is to make it a series of albums extending to 1999—to try to capture, using this device, what the last five years of this millennium feel like. It's a diary within the diary. The narrative and the stories are not the content—the content is the spaces in between the linear bits. The queasy, strange, textures.... Oh, I've got the fondest hopes for the fin de siecle. I see it as a symbolic sacrificial rite. I see it as a deviance, a pagan wish to appease gods, so we can move on. There's a real spiritual starvation out there being filled by these mutations of what are barely remembered rites and rituals. To take the place of the void left by a non-authoritative church. We have this panic button telling us it's gonna be a colossal madness at the end of this century."
Bowie was influenced by performance artist Ron Athey. References to Athey's influence were a regular feature in Bowie's discussions of Outside, including in a published conversation with Brian Eno. Bowie referenced Athey directly in the music video for The Hearts Filthy Lesson (directed by Samuel Bayer, 1995), where porn actor Bud Hole performed Athey's trademark "surgical crown of thorns" (without Athey's consent; Athey previously declined to appear in the video). Bowie also made a digitally manipulated portrait of Athey and Divinity Fudge (aka Darryl Carlton) to accompany his contribution to a special issue of Q magazine the same year. The portrait appropriated a photograph by Dona Ann McAdams documenting Athey's performance of 4 Scenes in a Harsh Life at PS122 performance space in New York. McAdams successfully sued Bowie for using her image without consent.
In 1999, summing up his work since and including Outside, Bowie said "Perhaps the one through-line between some of the stuff in Outside and the coming millennium is this new Pagan worship, this whole search for a new spiritual life that's going on. Because of the way we've demolished the idea of God with that triumvirate at the beginning of the century, Nietzsche, Einstein, and Freud. They really demolished everything we believed. 'Time bends, God is dead, the inner-self is made of many personalities'... wow, where the fuck are we? [...] I wonder if we have realized that the only thing we could create as 'God' was the hydrogen bomb and that the fall-out from the realization that as gods we can only seem to produce disaster is people trying to find some spiritual bonding and universality with a real nurtured inner-life. But there is also this positivism that you find now which really wasn't there at the end of the last century. Then, the general catch phrase among the artistic and literary community was that it was the end of the world. They really felt that in 1899 there was nothing else, that only complete disaster could follow. It isn't like that now. We may be a little wary or jittery about what's around the corner, but there's no feeling of everything's going to end in the year 2000. Instead, there's almost a celebratory feeling of 'right, at least we can get cracking and really pull it all together.'" Although he ruefully noted, "I think it'll all fizzle out on January the 1st. Getting up and deciding what you're going to have for breakfast, that'll be the most exciting thing to do in the New Age."
The album's cover is a close-up of a self-portrait (from a series of five) painted by David Bowie in 1995. The self-portrait's name is "The Dhead – Outside" and is a lithograph measuring 25.5 x 20 cm. The original portrait remains in Bowie's private collection.
Bowie had considered writing an album every year or so through the end of the millennium to tell the story of how the end of the millennium felt. He said, "This is a once-in-a-lifetime chance, by a narrative device, to chronicle the final five years of the millennium. The over-ambitious intention is to carry this through to the year 2000." He felt he had recorded enough material during the 1. Outside sessions that he voiced his intention to continue the narrative through a 3-album set. He suggested that he might release more albums that continued the story, saying "I quite foresee that, next year, we'll develop a whole new slew of other characters or maybe re-introduce some of these or even negate some of them. Maybe we'll never find Baby Grace. Maybe Adler will become the next victim. I don't know. And that's what's kind of interesting. Maybe we'll just get bored with murder as art and move into another area of our society. It's all up for grabs. So I'm quite interested in the future of this thing." He intended to call the second follow-up album Contamination, and had sketched out the characters for the album (including some "17th century people") and had expected the album to be released in the spring of 1997. In mid-1996, Bowie said in an interview that he intended to go into the studio in September or October of that year, just him and Eno, to work on Outside's follow-up album, but was going to work on a studio album using his touring band in July first. Despite this, no direct follow-up to Outside was ever produced, and Bowie's next album was his jungle and drum and bass-influenced work Earthling (1997). After an assistant engineer leaked tapes of tracks intended for the project to the Internet, Bowie nixed the idea, according to album musician Mike Garson.
Bowie also mentioned the possibility of releasing an album called Inside which would be a making-of about Outside: "Our working method [will be] detailed on it, a couple of jams and more of those voices. The first monologue of Baby Grace was 15 minutes long and was very Twin Peaks." However, no such album was released.
On having over-recorded for the album, Bowie said "The one thing I can truly, seriously think about in the future that I would like to get my teeth into—it's just so daunting—is the rest of the work that [Brian] Eno and I did when we started to do the Outside album [in 1994]. We did improv for eight days, and we had something in the area of 20 hours' worth of stuff that I just cannot begin to get close to listening to. But there are some absolute gems in there..."
In 2016, one day after Bowie's death, Eno recalled: "About a year ago we started talking about Outside – the last album we worked on together. We both liked that album a lot and felt that it had fallen through the cracks. We talked about revisiting it, taking it somewhere new. I was looking forward to that."
|Encyclopedia of Popular Music|||
|The Rolling Stone Album Guide|||
Rolling Stone gave the album 3 out of 5 stars upon release, criticising the interspersed narrative tracks, stating "It's the superfluous wordage – the intrusive spoken monologues, the jury-rigged cybernoir narrative, the overelaborate characterizations – that damn near sink the record." However, the magazine generally praised the music, saying that it's "arguably his best work since the '70s" and "a potent collection of avant-garage riffs and rhythm notions". They went on to appreciate Bowie's lyrics as "smart", "effective" and "sly", especially on the songs "I Have Not Been to Oxford Town" and "A Small Plot of Land".
"Regulars might feel short-changed on the tune front", Tom Doyle commented in Q, "and those legions who came in on Let's Dance will most certainly be left completely and utterly bewildered. Perhaps, though, that's entirely the point."
Live! magazine called the album "risky" but considered it ultimately to be successful. Following Bowie's death, Prog said that, "pilloried by some at the time for its perceived self-indulgence, Outside will be now be re-evaluated and be found to be one of his very best." Consequence of Sound ranked Outside number seven on its list of David Bowie's studio albums, above acclaimed records such as Blackstar or Station to Station, stating that the album "succeeded because Bowie bought in completely to its concept and strangeness".
Bowie considered performing Outside theatrically, but was not sure how. He said, "I'm not going to present the new album theatrically, it's far too ambitious a project. ... For me, it's attractive to be working with something which resembles Brecht's work, the pieces he did with Weill. The Rise & Fall of Mahagonny was always a tremendous influence on me. The idea of trying to recreate those kinds of situations in rock has always been attractive and I feel that is what I'm possibly moving back towards."
Instead, Bowie took his music on a more conventional tour from late 1995 to early 1996. Bowie toured with Nine Inch Nails in support of his album, called the Outside Tour. Morrissey opened for Bowie in the UK in September peaking with three shows at the Wembley Arena in London. Morrissey was also supposed to be the support act during the European leg in October but he finally cancelled his commitments just before the beginning of the tour.
All lyrics are written by David Bowie.
|No.||Title||Music||Sung from the perspective of||Length|
|1.||"Leon Takes Us Outside"||Bowie, Brian Eno, Reeves Gabrels, Mike Garson, Erdal Kızılçay, Sterling Campbell||Leon Blank||1:25|
|2.||"Outside"||Bowie, Kevin Armstrong||prologue||4:04|
|3.||"The Hearts Filthy Lesson"||Bowie, Eno, Gabrels, Garson, Kızılçay, Campbell||Detective Nathan Adler||4:57|
|4.||"A Small Plot of Land"||Bowie, Eno, Gabrels, Garson, Kızılçay, Campbell||The residents of Oxford Town, New Jersey||6:36|
|5.||"Baby Grace (A Horrid Cassette)" (segue)||Bowie, Eno, Gabrels, Garson, Kızılçay, Campbell||Baby Grace Blue||1:39|
|6.||"Hallo Spaceboy"||Bowie, Eno||Paddy||5:14|
|7.||"The Motel"||Bowie||Leon Blank||6:49|
|8.||"I Have Not Been to Oxford Town"||Bowie, Eno||Leon Blank||3:47|
|9.||"No Control"||Bowie, Eno||Detective Nathan Adler||4:33|
|10.||"Algeria Touchshriek" (segue)||Bowie, Eno, Gabrels, Garson, Kızılçay, Campbell||Algeria Touchshriek||2:03|
|11.||"The Voyeur of Utter Destruction (as Beauty)"||Bowie, Eno, Gabrels||The Artist/Minotaur||4:21|
|12.||"Ramona A. Stone/I Am with Name" (segue)||Bowie, Eno, Gabrels, Garson, Kızılçay, Campbell||Ramona A. Stone and her acolytes||4:01|
|13.||"Wishful Beginnings"||Bowie, Eno||The Artist/Minotaur||5:08|
|14.||"We Prick You"||Bowie, Eno||Members of the Court of Justice||4:33|
|15.||"Nathan Adler" (segue)||Bowie, Eno, Gabrels, Garson, Kızılçay, Campbell||Detective Nathan Adler||1:00|
|16.||"I'm Deranged"||Bowie, Eno||The Artist/Minotaur||4:31|
|17.||"Thru' These Architects Eyes"||Bowie, Gabrels||Leon Blank||4:22|
|18.||"Nathan Adler" (segue)||Bowie, Eno||Detective Nathan Adler||0:28|
|19.||"Strangers When We Meet"||Bowie||Leon Blank||5:07|
|20.||"Get Real"||Bowie, Eno||2:49|
|1.||"Leon Takes Us Outside" (edit vers)||0:24|
|3.||"The Hearts Filthy Lesson"||4:57|
|4.||"A Small Plot of Land"||6:34|
|5.||"Baby Grace Blue (A Horrid Cassette)" (segue)||1:39|
|7.||"The Motel" (edit vers)||5:03|
|8.||"I Have Not Been to Oxford Town"||3:47|
|9.||"The Voyeur of Utter Destruction (as Beauty)"||4:21|
|10.||"Ramona A. Stone/I Am with Name" (segue)||4:01|
|11.||"We Prick You"||4:33|
|12.||"Nathan Adler" (segue)||1:00|
|1.||"Hallo Spaceboy" (Pet Shop Boys remix)||4:26|
|2.||"Under Pressure" (live version, recorded 1995)||Brian May, Roger Taylor, Freddie Mercury, John Deacon, Bowie||4:08|
|3.||"Moonage Daydream" (live version, recorded 1995)||Bowie||5:29|
|4.||"The Man Who Sold the World" (live version, recorded 1995)||Bowie||3:35|
|5.||"Strangers When We Meet" (edit)||4:21|
|6.||"The Hearts Filthy Lesson" (Rubber mix)||7:41|
|1.||"The Hearts Filthy Lesson" (Alternative mix)||Trent Reznor, Dave Ogilvie, Chris Vrenna||5:20|
|2.||"The Hearts Filthy Lesson" (Rubber mix)||Tony Maserati, Robert Holmes||7:41|
|3.||"The Hearts Filthy Lesson" (Simple Test mix)||Maserati, Holmes||6:38|
|4.||"The Hearts Filthy Lesson" (Filthy mix)||Maserati, Holmes||5:51|
|5.||"The Hearts Filthy Lesson" (Good Karma mix)||Tim Simenon||5:00|
|6.||"A Small Plot of Land" (Basquiat version)||Brian Eno||2:48|
|7.||"Hallo Spaceboy" (12" remix)||Pet Shop Boys||6:45|
|8.||"Hallo Spaceboy" (Double Click mix)||PSB, David Ball, Ingo Vauk||7:47|
|9.||"Hallo Spaceboy" (Instrumental)||PSB, Ball, Vauk||7:41|
|10.||"Hallo Spaceboy" (Lost in Space mix)||PSB, Ball, Vauk||6:29|
|11.||"I Am with Name" (album version)||4:01|
|12.||"I'm Deranged" (Jungle mix)||Mark Plati||7:00|
|13.||"Get Real"||Bowie, Eno||2:49|
|14.||"Nothing to Be Desired"||Bowie, Eno||2:15|
- "I Am with Name" contains a sample of audience cheering, Brian May yelling and a Cozy Powell lick from Live at the Brixton Academy.
- The Pet Shop Boys remix of "Hallo Spaceboy" contains samples of "Leon Takes Us Outside" and lyrics from "Space Oddity", written by Bowie and adapted by Neil Tennant.
- The European issue of version 2 was single disc, and replaced "Wishful Beginnings" with the Pet Shop Boys remix of "Hallo Spaceboy", appended as the album's last track.
- The Australian issue of version 2 had the "Bowie mix" (identical to the album version) of "The Hearts Filthy Lesson" instead of the "Rubber mix".
- The Basquiat version of "A Small Plot of Land" was first released on Island Records' Basquiat Original Soundtrack: Music from the Miramax Film. The Jungle mix of "I'm Deranged" was first released as a B-side on some issues of the "Dead Man Walking" single. All other bonus tracks were first released on various issues of all singles off of the album.
|Australian Albums Chart||55|
|Austrian Albums (Ö3 Austria)||22|
|Belgian Albums (Ultratop Flanders)||12|
|Belgian Albums (Ultratop Wallonia)||14|
|Danish Albums Chart||10|
|Dutch Albums (Album Top 100)||38|
|Finnish Albums (Suomen virallinen lista)||26|
|German Albums (Offizielle Top 100)||33|
|New Zealand Albums (RMNZ)||37|
|Norwegian Albums (VG-lista)||15|
|Swedish Albums (Sverigetopplistan)||13|
|Swiss Albums (Schweizer Hitparade)||22|
|UK Albums (OCC)||8|
|US Billboard 200||21|
Certifications and sales
|United Kingdom (BPI)||Silver||200,000|
In popular culture
The song "I'm Deranged" was featured as the opening title and end credits music for David Lynch's 1997 film Lost Highway. For the end credits Bowie's vocals start a cappella for the first couple of lines, before the backing track fades up.
The song "I Have Not Been to Oxford Town" was slightly modified by replacing 'Oxford Town' with 'Paradise' and '20th Century' with '23rd century' and featured in Paul Verhoeven's 1997 film Starship Troopers. It was performed by Zoë Poledouris in her cameo appearance as the high school graduation party band's lead singer.
- Gill, Andy (11 January 2016). "David Bowie: How the outsider's outsider proved himself far braver than the rock'n'roll mainstream". The Independent. London, England: Independent Print Ltd. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- Savage, Mark (11 January 2016). "David Bowie: A career that shaped modern pop". BBC News. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- Moody, Rick (10 September 1995). "Returning to the Sound of Those Golden Years". The New York Times. New York City: New York Times Company. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Fricke, David (19 October 1995), "Art Crime", Rolling Stone, New York City: Wenner Media LLC, no. 719, p. 148
- Gundersen, Edna (14 September 1995). "Cover Story: Bowie, beyond fame and fashion". USA Today. McLean, Virginia: Gannett Company: D1–2.
- O'Leary, Chris (2019). Ashes to Ashes The Songs of David Bowie 1976–2016. Repeater Books. ISBN 9781912248308.
- Gorman, Paul (1995). "David Bowie (Interview)". MBI. Minneapolis, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company LLC. Archived from the original on 16 July 2001. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "David Bowie Outside Press Conference London 1995". www.youtube.com. 4 December 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- Isler, Scott (August 1987). "David Bowie Opens Up – A Little". Musician. New York City: Billboard Publishing Inc. (106): 60–73.
- Paul, George A. (1995). "Bowie Outside Looking In". Axcess Magazine. Stockholm, Sweden: Axcess Publishing AB. 3 (5): 60–62.
- Smith, Clyde (2013). "Ty Roberts From Working With David Bowie To Co-Founding Gracenote". hypebot.com. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
- Brown, Mark (1997). "The Thin White Earthling". Archived from the original on 13 October 1999.
- Duke of Haza, 1995, archived from the original on 25 April 2005, retrieved 2 August 2013
- Roberts, Chris (October 1995), "Action Painting", Ikon, archived from the original on 16 July 2001
- David Bowie and Brian Eno, ‘Internet Conversation, 26 October 1994’, Q (January 1995), 182–83 (183).
- Dominic Johnson, "Introduction: Towards a Moral and Just Psychopathology" in Pleading in the Blood: The Art and Performances of Ron Athey (Intellect and Live Art Development Agency, 2013), 17
- David Bowie, ‘The Diary of Nathan Addler: or, The Art-Ritual Murder of Baby Grace Belew – An Occasionally On-going Short Story’, Q (January 1995), 176–81 (181)
- Charise K. Lawrence, ‘David Bowie Makes Amends over Bloody Good Photos’, National Law Journal (3 July 1995), A27.
- Chirazi, Stefan (2000). "Portrait of the Artist: David Bowie". Soma Magazine. Retrieved 14 May 2012 – via Bowie Wonderworld.
- Mabbott, Alistair (17 November 1995). "The man who fell to earth". The List. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- "Bowieart.com / David Bowie / Printmaking". Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- Kuipers, Dean (March 1997), "David Bowie: Is There Life on Earth?", Ray Gun (44)
- "David Bowie – Interview with Alan Bangs/Loreley Festival 1996". June 1996. Retrieved 26 November 2018. Alan Bangs
- @mikegarson (5 July 2020). "An assistant engineer at the time stole the session tapes and released a bunch of raw tracks on the internet..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Can the Real David Bowie Rise, Please?", HUMO, Asse, Belgium: De Persgroep, 5 December 1995, archived from the original on 16 June 2013, retrieved 6 June 2013
- Orzeck, Kurt (August 2003), "David Bowie Faces Reality", Ice, archived from the original on 3 November 2003
- Geoghegan, Kev; Saunders, Emma (11 January 2016). "Reaction to David Bowie's death". BBC Online. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "1. Outside – Blender". Blender. Archived from the original on 4 August 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
- Larkin, Colin (2011). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music (5th concise ed.). Omnibus Press.
- "Music Review: Outside, by David Bowie". Entertainment Weekly. 29 September 1995.
- "David Bowie: 1.Outside Review". Q. October 1995.
- Fricke, David (19 October 1995). "David Bowie Outside Album Review". Rolling Stone. New York City: Wenner Media LLC. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. New York City: Simon & Schuster. 2004. pp. 97–98.
- Grundy, Gareth (November 1995). "David Bowie: Outside". Select. p. 107. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- Powers, Ann (October 1995). "David Bowie:Outside". Spin. Los Angeles, California: Eldridge Industries. p. 116.
- Butler, Nick (21 September 2011). "David Bowie – Outside (album review 2)". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
- Weisel, Al (2 November 1995), "Performance: Nine Inch Nails / David Bowie", Rolling Stone, New York City: Wenner Media LLC (720), p. 28
- Pond, Steve (March 1997), "Beyond Bowie", Live! Magazine: 38–41, 93
- "David Bowie's Proggiest Moments". Prog. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- Goble, Blake; Blackard, Cap; Levy, Pat; Phillips, Lior; Sackllah, David (8 January 2018). "Ranking: Every David Bowie Album From Worst to Best". Consequence of Sound. Chicago, Illinois: Consequence Holdings LLC. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- "I Am With Name". Archived from the original on 31 July 2018. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- Ryan, Gavin (2011). Australia's Music Charts 1988–2010. Mt. Martha, VIC, Australia: Moonlight Publishing.
- "Austriancharts.at – David Bowie – 1. Outside" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "Ultratop.be – David Bowie – 1. Outside" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "Ultratop.be – David Bowie – 1. Outside" (in French). Hung Medien. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "Listen – Danmarks Officielle Hitliste – Udarbejdet af AIM Nielsen for IFPI Danmark – Uge 39". Ekstra Bladet (in Danish). Copenhagen. 1 October 1995.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – David Bowie – 1. Outside" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "David Bowie: 1. Outside" (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "Offiziellecharts.de – David Bowie – 1. Outside" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "Charts.nz – David Bowie – 1. Outside". Hung Medien. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "Norwegiancharts.com – David Bowie – 1. Outside". Hung Medien. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "Swedishcharts.com – David Bowie – 1. Outside". Hung Medien. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "Swisscharts.com – David Bowie – 1. Outside". Hung Medien. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "David Bowie | Artist | Official Charts". UK Albums Chart. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "David Bowie Chart History (Billboard 200)". Billboard. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "Il Duca Bianco in noir". La Stampa (in Italian). 8 February 1996. p. 22. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
- "David Bowie, il volto mistico del rock". La Stampa (in Italian). 16 November 1995. p. 23. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
- "British album certifications – David Bowie – Outside". British Phonographic Industry.