Ouzo (Greek: ούζο, IPA: [ˈuzo]) is an anise-flavoured aperitif that is widely consumed in Greece, Cyprus and Lebanon. Its taste is similar to other anise liquors like pastis, sambuca, arak, rakı, and mastika, that are traditionally produced and consumed in Mediterranean countries.
Ouzo has its roots in tsipouro, which is said to have been the work of a group of 14th-century monks on Mount Athos. One version of it was flavoured with anise. This version eventually came to be called ouzo.[page needed]
Modern ouzo distillation largely took off in the beginning of the 19th century following Greek independence. The first ouzo distillery was founded in Tyrnavos in 1856 by Nikolaos Katsaros, giving birth to the famous ouzo Tyrnavou. When absinthe fell into disfavour in the early 20th century, ouzo was one of the products whose popularity rose to fill the gap; it was once called "a substitute for absinthe without the wormwood". In 1932, ouzo producers developed a method of distillation using copper stills that is now the standard method of production. One of the largest producers of ouzo today is Varvayiannis (Βαρβαγιάννης), located in the town of Plomari in the southeast portion of the island of Lesbos, while in the same town Pitsiladi (Πιτσιλαδή), a variety of high-quality ouzo, is also distilled.
Ouzo is traditionally served with a small plate of a variety of appetizers called mezes, usually small fresh fish, fries, olives and feta cheese. Ouzo can be described to have a similar taste to absinthe which is liquorice-like, but smoother.
On October 25, 2006, Greece won the right to label ouzo as an exclusively Greek product. The European Union now recognizes ouzo, as well as the Greek drinks tsipouro and tsikoudia, as products with a Protected Designation of Origin, which prohibits European makers other than Greece and Cyprus from using the name.
The origin of the name "ouzo" is disputed. A popular derivation is from the Italian "uso Massalia"—for use in Marseille—stamped on selected silkworm cocoons exported from Tyrnavos in the 19th century. According to anecdote, this designation came to stand for "superior quality", which the spirit distilled as ouzo was thought to possess.
During a visit to Thessaly in 1896, the late professor Alexander Philadelpheus delivered to us valuable information on the origins of the word "ouzo", which has come to replace the word "tsipouro". According to the professor, tsipouro gradually became ouzo after the following event: Thessaly exported fine cocoons to Marseilles during the 19th century, and in order to distinguish the product, outgoing crates would be stamped with the words "uso Massalia"—Italian for "to be used in Marseille". One day, the Ottoman Greek consulate physician, named Anastas (Anastasios) Bey, happened to be visiting the town of Tyrnavos and was asked to sample the local tsipouro. Upon tasting the drink, the physician immediately exclaimed: "This is uso Massalia, my friends"—referring to its high quality. The term subsequently spread by word of mouth, until tsipouro gradually became known as ouzo.
- —The Times of Thessaly, 1959
Ouzo production begins with distillation in copper stills of 96 percent alcohol by volume (ABV) rectified spirit. Anise is added, sometimes with other flavorings such as star anise, fennel, mastic, cardamom, coriander, cloves, and cinnamon. The flavoring ingredients are often closely guarded company "recipes", and distinguish one ouzo from another. The result is a flavored alcoholic solution known as flavored ethyl alcohol, or more commonly as ouzo yeast—μαγιά ούζου in Greek—the term for "yeast" being used by Greeks metaphorically to denote that it serves as the starting point for ouzo production.
The ouzo yeast is then distilled. After several hours of distillation, a flavored distillate of approximately 80 ABV (% Alcohol By Volume) is produced. The spirit at the beginning of the distillation ( heads) and end (tails ) is usually removed to avoid light and heavy alcohols and aromatics. The heads and tails are usually mixed and distilled again. The product of this second distillation can be used to produce a different quality ouzo.
This technique of double-distillation is used by some distillers to differentiate their products.
Makers of high-quality "100% from distillation" ouzo proceed at this stage with water dilution, bringing the ouzo to its final ABV. But most producers combine the "ouzo yeast" with less expensive ethyl alcohol flavored with 0.05 percent natural anethole, before water dilution. Greek law dictates that in this case the ouzo yeast cannot be less than 20 percent of the final product.
Sugar may be added before water dilution, which is done mostly with ouzo from Southern Greece.
The final ABV is usually between 37.5 and 50 percent; the minimum allowed is 37.5 percent.
Ouzo production itself does not include fermentation.
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In modern Greece, ouzeries (the suffix -erie is imported from French) can be found in nearly all cities, towns, and villages. These cafe-like establishments serve ouzo with mezedes—appetizers such as octopus, salad, sardines, calamari, fried zucchini, and clams, among others. It is traditionally slowly sipped (usually mixed with water or ice) together with mezedes shared with others over a period of several hours in the early evening.
In other countries it is tradition to have ouzo in authentic Greek restaurants as an aperitif, served in a shot glass and deeply chilled before the meal is started. No water or ice is added but the drink is served very cold, enough to make some crystals form in the drink as it is served.
Ouzo can colloquially be referred to as a particularly strong drink, the cause of this being its sugar content. Sugar delays ethanol absorption in the stomach, and may thus mislead the drinker into thinking that they can drink more as they do not feel tipsy early on. Then the cumulative effect of ethanol appears and the drinker becomes inebriated rather quickly. This is why it is generally considered poor form to drink ouzo "dry hammer" ("ξεροσφύρι", xerosfýri, an idiomatic expression that means "drinking alcohol without eating anything") in Greece. The presence of food, especially fats or oils, in the upper digestive system prolongs the absorption of ethanol and ameliorates alcohol intoxication.
Ouzo is a clear liquid. However, when water or ice is added, ouzo turns a milky-white colour. This is because anethole, the essential oil of anise, is completely soluble in alcohol at approximately 38% ABV and above, but not in water. Diluting the spirit causes it to separate creating an emulsion, whose fine droplets scatter the light. This process is called louching, and is also found while preparing absinthe.
Drinks with a similar flavour
Similar aperitifs include oghi (from Armenia), mastika from Bulgaria and Macedonia, rakı from Turkey, pastis (France), and arak (from the Levant). Its aniseed flavour is also similar to the anise-flavoured liqueurs of sambuca (Italy) and anís (Spain) and the stronger spirits of absinthe (France and Switzerland). Aguardiente (Colombia), made from sugar cane, is also similar. The Italian drink Pallini Mistra, named after the Greek city of Mystras in the Peloponnese is a version of ouzo made in Rome that closely resembles Greek and Cypriot ouzo.
In popular culture
- In Jack Kerouac's autobiographical novel On the Road (1957), the following is said about a character who is thought to be the American author William S. Burroughs: "In Athens he looked up from his ouzo at what he called the ugliest people in the world."
- In Colonel Sun by Kingsley Amis, the first James Bond continuation novel published in 1968, shortly after Ian Fleming's death, James Bond in on a mission in Greece. In one of his exchanges with a local girl, the British secret agent has the chance to admit, over a glass of ouzo, that he knows ouzo much better than he knows Greece.
- In Ouroboros Ouzo, a 2014 short story by the British writer Jonathan L. Howard, necromancer Johannes Cabal visits Greece to drink Ouroboros ouzo and take a look into the future.
- In the 1960 Greek film Never on Sunday by Jules Dassin, Homer (an American tourist played by Dassin) gets initiated into the carefree world of song and dance after having a few glasses of ouzo at a Pireaus taverna. The glasses get smashed right after use.
- In the 1973 American film 40 Carats, Liv Ullmann as Ann Stanley who is on vacation in Greece and young Edward Albert as Peter Latham break the ice over a glass of ouzo and start a romantic relationship.
- In the 1991 American film Doc Hollywood, ouzo is the "cocktail" that the three ladies of the "Welcoming Committee"—Miss Violet, Miss Lillian and Miss Mattie—offered Dr. Ben Stone (Michael J. Fox) upon his first night in Grady, SC. It is also the "Greek Death" that Stone offered Lou after running back to her house after dinner at the mayor's house that evening.
- In the 2002 American film My Big Fat Greek Wedding by Joel Zwick, ouzo is served to the flabbergasted American in-laws during their first meeting with the bride's huge Greek family.
In song lyrics
- In 1977, Haris Alexiou recorded the song "Ouzo otan pieis" (When you drink ouzo) in her LP 24 Songs. The song is an adaptation of a 1934 song entitled "When you have dope", which was censored because of its drug related content. The adapted song was highly successful and has been translated in French, German, and Spanish.
- Schnapps, chianti, porter and ouzo
Pernod, vodka, sambuca—I love you so
"The Deportees Club" (1984) by English musician Elvis Costello
- I've got a belly full of ouzo
And a head full of hurt
"Mudride" (1988) by American band Mudhoney
- I took you down on ouzo
And now I think I'd rather see you dead
"The Band" (2002) by the Swedish band Mando Diao
- Epikouria Magazine, Spring/Summer 2007
- Encyclopædia Britannica: Micropaedia article on "ouzo".
- "Greeks toast EU's ruling on ouzo". Theage.com.au. 2006-10-25. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
- Oxford English Dictionary online, Oxford University Press, retrieved September 7, 2007
- G. Babiniotis, Λεξικό της Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας (2002), p. 1285
- G. Clauson, An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth Century Turkish, Oxford 1972, p. 288
- Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης, Λεξικό της Κοινής Νεοελληνικής, 1998, s.v. ούζο
- Epikouria Magazine Spring/Summer 2007
- "The production method (of ouzo)". Tsou.gr. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- Michael Paraskos, 'A perfect sundowner to replace the tired old brandy sour', in The Cyprus Mail (Cyprus newspaper), 19 April 2015
- Kerouac, Jack (2011-07-21). On the Road. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 9780141912561.
- Amis, Kingsley (2015-10-15). Colonel Sun: James Bond 007. Random House. ISBN 9781473545267.
- "Χάρις Αλεξίου // η επίσημη ιστοσελίδα". www.alexiou.gr. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
- "Μηχανή του χρόνου: Πρέζα όταν πιεις, βρε θα ευφρανθείς . Το τραγούδι που λογόκρινε ο Μεταξάς επειδή ήταν χασικλίδικο". Retrieved 2016-10-29.
- OUZO: more than 600 labels of ouzo and 200 distilleries.