|Scaly-throated foliage-gleaner (Anabacerthia variegaticeps)|
Ovenbirds or furnariids are a large family of small suboscine passerine birds found from Mexico and Central to southern South America. They form the family Furnariidae. The ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), which breeds in North America, is not a furnariid – rather it is a distantly related bird of the wood warbler family, Parulidae.
The ovenbirds are a diverse group of insectivores which get their name from the elaborate, vaguely "oven-like" clay nests built by the horneros, although most other ovenbirds build stick nests or nest in tunnels or clefts in rock. The Spanish word for "oven" (horno) gives the horneros their name. Furnariid nests are always constructed with a cover, and up to six pale blue, greenish or white eggs are laid. The eggs hatch after 15 to 22 days, and the young fledge after a further 13 to 20 days.
They are small to medium-sized birds, ranging from 9 to 35 cm in length. While individual species often are habitat specialists, species of this family can be found in virtually any Neotropical habitat, ranging from city parks inhabited by rufous horneros, to tropical Amazonian lowlands by many species of foliage-gleaners, to temperate barren Andean highlands inhabited by several species of miners. Two species, the seaside and the surf cinclodes, are associated with rocky coasts.
Taxonomy and systematics
Recently, the woodcreepers (formerly Dendrocolaptidae) were merged into this family, following analysis of sequences. While confirming the overall phylogenetic pattern, other scientists instead opted for maintaining the woodcreepers as a separate family, while splitting the ovenbirds (as traditionally defined) into two families, Furnariidae and Scleruridae.
The systematics of the Dendrocolaptinae were reviewed by Raikow (1994) based on morphology and by Irestedt et al. (2004) based on analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Using the latter approach, the suspected major lineages of the Furnariinae (foliage-gleaners, spinetails, and true ovenbirds) were confirmed, but some new lineages were discovered and the relationships of several genera had to be revised.
The taxonomic arrangement presented below is based on recent studies of ovenbird relationships. However, because ovenbirds and woodcreepers are treated here as a single family some taxonomic ranks were modified.
Subfamily: Sclerurinae – miners and leaftossers
Subfamily: Dendrocolaptinae – Woodcreeper
- Tribe: Sittasomini – "intermediate" woodcreepers 
- Tribe: Dendrocolaptini – "strong-billed" woodcreepers 
- Genus Glyphorynchus – wedge-billed woodcreeper
- Genus Nasica – long-billed woodcreeper
- Genus Dendrexetastes – cinnamon-throated woodcreeper
- Genus Dendrocolaptes – woodcreepers (5 species)
- Genus Hylexetastes – woodcreepers (2–4 species)
- Genus Xiphocolaptes – woodcreepers (4 species)
- Genus Dendroplex – straight-billed woodcreepers (2 species, formerly in Xiphorhynchus)
- Genus Xiphorhynchus – woodcreepers (some 15 species, possibly polyphyletic)
- Genus Lepidocolaptes – narrow-billed woodcreepers (7 species)
- Genus Drymornis – scimitar-billed woodcreeper
- Genus Drymotoxeres – greater scythebill
- Genus Campylorhamphus – scythebills (4 species)
Subfamily: Furnariinae – Neotropical ovenbirds and allies
- Tribe Pygarrhichini
- Tribe Furnariini – horneros and allies
- Genus Pseudocolaptes – tuftedcheeks (2 species)
- Genus Premnornis – rusty-winged barbtail
- Genus Tarphonomus – (new genus for 2 species formerly included in Upucerthia)
- Genus Geocerthia – striated earthcreeper (recently described for U. serrrana)
- Genus Upucerthia – earthcreepers (5 species)
- Genus Cinclodes – cinclodes (some 12 species)
- Genus Furnarius – horneros (6 species)
- Genus Lochmias – sharp-tailed streamcreeper
- Genus Phleocryptes – wren-like rushbird
- Genus Limnornis – curve-billed reedhaunter
- Tribe Philydorini – foliage-gleaners and allies
- Genus Megaxenops – great xenops
- Genus Anabazenops – foliage-gleaners (2 species)
- Genus Ancistrops – chestnut-winged hookbill
- Genus Cichlocolaptes – (2 species)
- Genus Heliobletus – sharp-billed treehunter
- Genus Philydor – foliage-gleaners (7 species)
- Genus Anabacerthia – foliage-gleaners (5 species)
- Genus Syndactyla – foliage-gleaners (8 species)
- Genus Clibanornis – (5 species)
- Genus Thripadectes – treehunters (7 species)
- Genus Automolus – foliage-gleaners (8–9 species)
- Tribe Synallaxini – spinetails and allies
- Genus Margarornis – treerunners (4 species)
- Genus Premnoplex – typical barbtails (2 species)
- Genus Aphrastura – rayaditos (2 species)
- Genus Hellmayrea – white-browed spinetail
- Genus Sylviorthorhynchus – Des Murs's wiretail
- Genus Leptasthenura – tit-spinetails (10 species)
- Genus Phacellodomus – thornbirds (9 species)
- Genus Anumbius – firewood-gatherer
- Genus Coryphistera – lark-like brushrunner
- Genus Pseudoseisura – cacholotes (4 species)
- Genus Pseudasthenes – "false canasteros" (4 species, recently described)
- Genus Spartonoica – bay-capped wren-spinetail
- Genus Asthenes – canasteros (30 species)
- Genus Certhiaxis – spinetails (2 species)
- Genus Mazaria – White-bellied spinetail
- Genus Schoeniophylax – chotoy spinetail
- Genus Synallaxis – spinetails (33 species)
- Genus Siptornis – spectacled prickletail
- Genus Metopothrix – orange-fronted plushcrown
- Genus Xenerpestes – graytails (2 species)
- Genus Acrobatornis – pink-legged graveteiro
- Genus Limnoctites – straight-billed reedhaunter (sometimes included in Limnornis, but closer to, and possibly better merged with Cranioleuca)
- Genus Thripophaga – softtails (4 species)
- Genus Cranioleuca – typical spinetails (c.20 species)
- Remsen, J. V., Jr. 2003. Family Furnariidae (ovenbirds). Pages 162–357 in J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott and D. A. Christie eds. Handbook of the birds of the world, Vol. 8, broadbills to tapaculos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
- Willis, Edwin O. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph, ed. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 162–163. ISBN 1-85391-186-0.
- Irestedt, Martin; Fjeldså, Jon; Johansson, Ulf S. & Ericson, Per G.P. (2002). "Systematic relationships and biogeography of the tracheophone suboscines (Aves: Passeriformes)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 23 (3): 499–512. PMID 12099801. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00034-9.
- Moyle, R. G., R. T. Chesser, R. T. Brumfield, J. G. Tello, D. J. Marchese, & J. Cracraft (2009). "Phylogeny and phylogenetic classification of the antbirds, ovenbirds, woodcreepers, and allies (Aves: Passeriformes: infraorder Furnariides)". Cladistics. 25 (4): 386–405. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2009.00259.x.
- Raikow, Robert J. (1994). "A phylogeny of the woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptinae)" (PDF). Auk. 111 (1): 104–114. doi:10.2307/4088509.
- Irestedt, Martin; Fjeldså, Jon & Ericson, Per G. P. (2004). "Phylogenetic relationships of woodcreepers (Aves: Dendrocolaptinae) – incongruence between molecular and morphological data". Journal of Avian Biology. 35 (3): 280–288. doi:10.1111/j.0908-8857.2004.03234.x.
- Fjeldså, Jon; Irestedt, Martin & Ericson, Per G. P. (2005). "Molecular data reveal some major adaptational shifts in the early evolution of the most diverse avian family, the Furnariidae" (PDF). Journal of Ornithology. 146: 1–13. doi:10.1007/s10336-004-0054-5.
- Derryberry, Elizabeth P.; Claramunt, Santiago; Derryberry, Graham; Chesser, R. Terry; Cracraft, Joel; Aleixo, Alexandre; Pérez-Emán, Jorge; Remsen Jr., J. V.; Brumfield, Robb T. (2011). "Lineage diversification and morphological evolution in a large-scale continental radiation: the Neotropical ovenbirds and woodcreepers (Aves: Furnariidae)". Evolution. 65 (10): 2973–2986. ISSN 0014-3820. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01374.x.
- Irestedt, M., J. Fjeldså, and P. G. P. Ericson (2006). "Evolution of the ovenbird-woodcreeper assemblage (Aves: Furnariidae): major shifts in nest architecture and adaptive radiation". J. Avian Biol. 37 (3): 260–272. doi:10.1111/j.2006.0908-8857.03612.x.
- Chesser, R. T.; Barker, F. K. & Brumfield, R. T. (2007). "Fourfold polyphyly of the genus formerly known as Upucerthia, with notes on the systematics and evolution of the avian subfamily Furnariinae". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 44 (3): 1320–1332. PMID 17632018. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.04.014.
- Derryberry, E., S. Claramunt, R. T. Chesser, A. Aleixo, J. Cracraft, R. G. Moyle & R. T. Brumfield (2010). "Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2416: 44–50.
- Claramunt, S., E. P. Derryberry, R. T. Chesser, A. Aleixo & R. T. Brumfield (2010). "Polyphyly of Campylorhamphus with the description of a new genus for C. pucherani". Auk. 127 (2): 430–439. doi:10.1525/auk.2009.09022.
- The correct genus for former Xenops milleri
- Chesser, R. T. & R. T. Brumfield (2007). "Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from South America". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 120 (3): 337–339. doi:10.2988/0006-324X(2007)120[337:TANGOO]2.0.CO;2.
- Chesser, R. T., S. Claramunt, E. P. Derryberry, & R. T. Brumfield (2009). "Geocerthia, a new genus of terrestrial ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)". Zootaxa. 2213: 64–68.
- Olson, S. L., Irestedt, M., Ericson, P. G. P. and Fjeldså, J. (2005). "Independent evolution of two Darwinian marsh-dwelling ovenbirds (Furnariidae: Limnornis, Limnoctites)" (PDF). Ornitologia Neotropical 16: 347–359. hdl:10088/1568.
- Claramunt, Santiago; Derryberry, Elizabeth P.; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Cuervo, Andrés M.; Sanín, Camilo; Brumfield, Robb T. (2013). "Phylogeny and classification of Automolus foliage-gleaners and allies (Furnariidae)". The Condor. 115 (2): 375–385. ISSN 0010-5422. doi:10.1525/cond.2013.110198.
- Derryberry, E., S. Claramunt, K. E. O'Quin, A. Aleixo, R. T. Chesser, J. V. Remsen, Jr., and R. T. Brumfield (2010). "Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2416: 61–68.
- Claramunt, Santiago (2014). "Phylogenetic relationships among Synallaxini spinetails (Aves: Furnariidae) reveal a new biogeographic pattern across the Amazon and Paraná river basins". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 78: 223–231. ISSN 1055-7903. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.05.011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Furnariidae.|
- Ovenbird videos on the Internet Bird Collection
- Ovenbird sounds in the xeno-canto collection
- A classification of the bird species of South America (Part 6) (SACC)