Overtraining

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For the statistical estimation phenomenon, see Overfitting.

Overtraining can be described as a point where a person may have a decrease in performance and plateauing as a result from failure to consistently perform at a certain level or training load exceeds their recovery capacity.[1] They cease making progress, and can even begin to lose strength and fitness. Overtraining is also known as chronic fatigue, burnout and overstress in athletes.[2][3] It is suggested that there are different variations of overtraining, firstly monotonous program over training suggest that repetition of the same movement such as certain weight lifting and baseball batting can cause performance plateau due to an adaption of the central nervous system which results from a lack of stimulation.[1] A second example of overtraining is described as chronic overwork type training where the subject may be training with too high intensity or high volume and not allowing sufficient recovery time for the body.[1] It is important to note the difference between overtraining and over-reaching; over-reaching is when an athlete is undergoing hard training but with adequate recovery, overtraining however, is when an athlete is undergoing hard training without the adequate recovery. Up to 10% of elite endurance athletes and 10% of American college swimmers are affected by overtraining syndrome (unexplained underperformance for approximately 2 weeks even after having adequate resting time).[4]

Addiction[edit]

Overtraining can lead to exercise addiction which can lead to negative physiological and psychological effects,[5] an addictive craving for physical activity is shown to lead extreme exercise whilst building up a tolerance to the exercise then needing to to go further levels to achieve the same high.[6] Like pharmacological drugs, physical exercise may be chemically addictive. Addiction can be defined as, the frequent engaging in the behavior to a greater extent or for a longer time period than intended.[7][8] It is theorized is that this addiction is due to natural endorphins and dopamine generated and regulated by the exercise.[9] Whether strictly due to this chemical by-product or not, some people can be said to become addicted to or fixated on psychological/physical effects of physical exercise and fitness.[10] This may lead to overexercise, resulting in the "overtraining" syndrome.[11]

Physiology[edit]

A number of possible mechanisms for overtraining have been proposed:[citation needed]

  • Microtrauma to the muscles are created faster than the body can heal them.[12]
  • Amino acids are used up faster than they are supplied in the diet. This is sometimes called "protein deficiency".[13]
  • The body becomes calorie-deficient and the rate of break down of muscle tissue increases.
  • Levels of cortisol (the "stress" hormone) are elevated for long periods of time.
  • The body spends more time in a catabolic state than an anabolic state (perhaps as a result of elevated cortisol levels).
  • Excessive strain to the nervous system during training.
  • Systemic Inflammation which results in the release of cytokines activating an immune response[14]

Other symptoms[edit]

Overtraining may be accompanied by one or more concomitant symptoms:[15][16][17]

Effects[edit]

Laboratory rats and mice have been used as animal models for studies of overtraining.[22] Results in studies with rats show that overtraining can cause negative changes in the immune system which is suggested to arise from the physiological stress on the bodyl.[23] A study conducted at the University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee on overtraining and cycling also showed signs of physiological danger in the participants such as increased resting heart rate, decreased maximum heart rate and a decline in the body's ability to delivery oxygen to its muscles.[24] Listed below are some of the common effects and cited signs of overtraining. Not all of the following effects will occur. The presence of any of these symptoms does not imply that an individual is overtrained.[15][16][17][25][26]

Physiological[edit]

  • Lymphocytopenia[27]
  • Excessive weight loss
  • Excessive loss of body fat
  • Increased resting heart rate
  • Decreased muscular strength
  • Increased submaximal heart rate
  • Inability to complete workouts
  • Chronic muscle soreness
  • Fatigue [1]
  • Increased incidence of injury
  • Depressed immune system
  • Constipation or diarrhea
  • Absence of menstruation
  • Frequent minor infections/colds
  • Insomnia
  • Heart Palpitations
  • Lower Testosterone Levels
  • Higher Cortisol Levels

Psychological[edit]

  • Depression
  • Loss of appetite
  • Mood Disturbance[28]
  • Irritability
  • Loss of motivation
  • Loss of enthusiasm
  • Loss of competitive drive
  • insomnia[29][30]
  • difficulty concentrating[29][30]

Performance[edit]

  • Early onset of fatigue
  • Decreased aerobic capacity
  • Poor physical performance
  • Inability to complete workouts
  • Delayed recovery

It is also important to remember that the effect of overtraining is not isolated only to effecting the athletes athletic ability but it can have other implications on other areas of life. An example of this is to think about elite athletes who may also be students or in the work force. An overtrained athlete who is suffering fatigue and mood swings or even depression could also have trouble socialising with friends and family, studying for an exam or prepping for work.[31]

Treatment[edit]

Allowing more time for the body to recover:

  • Taking a break from training to allow time for recovery.[32]
  • Reducing the volume and/or the intensity of the training.
  • Suitable periodization of training.[33]
  • Splitting the training program so that different sets of muscles are worked on different days.[32]
  • Increase sleep time.
  • Deep-tissue or sports massage of the affected muscles.[34]
  • Self-massage or rub down of the affected muscles.[35]
  • Cryotherapy and thermotherapy.
  • Temperature contrast therapy (contrast showers etc.). The different hot and cold stimuli can stimulate the immune system, influence release of stress hormones and encourage blood flow which ultimately lessens the bodies pain sensitivity.[36]
  • Short sprints with long resting time once the athlete is able to continue with light training[4]

Changing diet:

Preventative Methods[edit]

Seeing as there are many non beneficial results of overtraining and the main treatment is taking time out to rest, so to avoid taking time off training prevention is very important for many athletes.[1] The gradual varying of intensity and volume of training is an effective way to prevent overtraining.[38] The athlete should be closely monitored by keeping records of weight, diet and heart rate and the training program should be adjusted in accordance to different physical and emotional stresses.[1]

Planned Overtraining[edit]

Overtraining can be used advantageously, as when a bodybuilder is purposely overtrained for a brief period of time to supercompensate during a regeneration phase. These are known as "shock micro-cycles" and were a key training technique used by Soviet athletes.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Stone, M (1991). "Overtraining: A Review of the Signs, Symptoms and Possible Causes". Journal of strength and conditioning research 5: 35–50. doi:10.1519/00124278-199102000-00006. 
  2. ^ Peluso, M., & Andrade, L. (2005). Physical activity and mental health: the association between exercise and mood. Clinics, 60(1), 61-70. doi:10.1590/s1807-59322005000100012
  3. ^ Carfagno D., Hendrix J. (2014). "Overtraining Syndrome in the Athlete". Current Sports Medicine Reports 13 (1): 45–51. doi:10.1249/jsr.0000000000000027. 
  4. ^ a b c d Whyte, Gregory; Harries, Mark; Williams, Clyde (2005). ABC of sports and exercise medicine. Blackwell Publishing. pp. pages=46–49. ISBN 978 0 7279 1813 0. 
  5. ^ HAUSENBLAS, HEATHER (2001). "HOW MUCH IS TOO MUCH? THE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF THE EXERCISE DEPENDENCE SCALE". Psychology and Health 17: 387–404. doi:10.1080/0887044022000004894. 
  6. ^ Lichtenstein, Mia (2013). "Exercise addiction in team sport and individual sport: Prevalences and validation of the exercise addiction inventory". Addiction Research and Theory 22: 431–437. doi:10.3109/16066359.2013.875537. 
  7. ^ Goodman A (1990). "Addiction: definition and implications". Addiction 85 (11): 1403–1408. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1990.tb01620.x. 
  8. ^ Mitchell A (2007). "Confronting Addiction Across Disciplines". Philosophy, Psychiatry, &Amp; Psychology 13 (3): 233–236. doi:10.1353/ppp.2007.0016. 
  9. ^ Adams, Jeremy; Kirkby, Robert (1998). "Exercise dependence: A review of its manifestation, theory and measurement". Research in Sports Medicine 8 (3): 265–76. doi:10.1080/15438629809512532. 
  10. ^ Draeger, John; Yates, Alayne; Crowell, Douglas (2005). "The Obligatory Exerciser: Assessing an Overcommitment to Exercise". The Physician and Sportsmedicine 33 (6): 13–23. doi:10.3810/psm.2005.06.101. PMID 20086364. 
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  13. ^ Lowery, & Forsythe, Lonnie, & Cassandra (April 19, 2006). "Protein and Overtraining: Potential Applications for Free-Living Athletes" (PDF). International Society of Sports Nutrition. Retrieved 12 April 2015. 
  14. ^ Smith, Lucille (November 1999). "Cytokine hypothesis of overtraining: a physiological adaptation to excessive stress?". Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Retrieved 16 April 2015. 
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  19. ^ Budgett, Richard (10 March 1998). "Fatigue and underperformance in athletes: the overtraining syndrome" (PDF). British Journal of Sports Medicine 32: 107–110. doi:10.1136/bjsm.32.2.107. Retrieved April 15, 2015. 
  20. ^ Brenner, Joel S (June 1, 2007). "Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout in Child and Adolescent Athletes". Pediatrics 119: 1242–1245. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-0887. Retrieved 15 April 2015. 
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  22. ^ Ho, T.-J., C.-C. Huang, C.-Y. Huang, and W.-T. Lin. 2012. Fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, protects against excessive endurance exercise training-induced cardiac hypertrophy, apoptosis and fibrosis in rats. European Journal of Applied Physiology 112:2943–2955.
  23. ^ Gholamnezhad, Zahra (2014). "Evaluation of immune response after moderate and overtraining exercise in wistar rat". Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. 
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