Overture on Hebrew Themes
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Performed by members of the Advent Chamber Orchestra
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Sergei Prokofiev wrote the Overture on Hebrew Themes, Op. 34, in 1919, during a trip to the United States. It is written for a relatively uncommon instrumentation of clarinet, string quartet, and piano.
Prokofiev arrived in New York in September, 1918. Overall, his years in America were not as successful as he had hoped:
The public here is not used to listening to the works of a single composer for a whole evening. People want a varied programme as a showcase for popular pieces. [Sergei] Rachmaninoff has accepted this compromise. I could not even dream of the overwhelming success he has with his concerts.[this quote needs a citation]
Nevertheless, he did manage regular appearances in American concert halls. Though Rachmaninoff was the leading Russian pianist in America at the time (having introduced himself in 1909–1910), Prokofiev gave many concerts that season of his own works and emphasized his image as a pianist.
Early in 1919, he was commissioned by a Russian sextet called the Zimro Ensemble, which had just arrived in America from the Far East on a world tour sponsored by the Russian Zionist Organization. The members played the instruments in this work's instrumentation, and were led by their clarinetist Simeon Bellison, who was trained in Moscow and had been principal clarinettist of the Mariinsky Theatre from 1915. (Bellison would soon become principal clarinet with the New York Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra.) They gave Prokofiev a notebook of Jewish folksongs, though the melodies Prokofiev chose have never been traced to any authentic sources. It has been suggested that Bellison had actually composed them himself in the Jewish style (Nice 2003, 161). The other members of the ensemble were Jacob Mestechkin, first violin, G. Besrody, second violin, K. Moldavan, viola, Joseph Cherniavsky, cello, and Leo Berdichevsky, piano (Levin 2006, 77), although one source names the second violinist as Michael Rosenker, who was 19 years old at the time (Heiles 2007, 286). Prokofiev completed the composition very quickly. It received its premiere at the Bohemian Club in New York, on 2 February 1920, with Prokofiev as guest pianist. Before they disbanded in 1922, the Zimro Ensemble performed it again at least twice at Carnegie Hall—with their own pianist, Berdichevsky, in 1921, and possibly with guest pianist Lara Cherniavsky in December 1920 (Levin 2006, 84). Prokofiev regarded the work as conceived essentially for a sextet, and long resisted suggestions of arranging it for other forces. In September 1930, he remarked, "I don’t understand what sort of obtuse people could have found it necessary to reorchestrate it" but, nevertheless, he was persuaded to make a version for chamber orchestra in 1934, published as Op. 34a (Prokofiev 1998, 168). The orchestrated version is performed far less often than the original.
Prokofiev did not regard the work very highly. When a Scots critic, Andrew Fraser, published an article in 1929 describing the Overture as "a beautiful and pathetic work", the composer wrote in response, "its technique is conventional, its form is bad (4 + 4 + 4 + 4)". When his friend Nikolai Myaskovsky praised the second theme, Prokofiev retorted, with reference to the work's coda, "from the musical point of view, the only worthwhile part, if you please, is the final section, and that, I think, is probably the result of my sweetness and diatonicism" (Nice 2003, 163).
Its structure follows the form of a fairly conventional overture. It is in the key of C minor. The clarinet and the cello are very prominent, introducing the first and the second themes, respectively. However, all instruments are balanced well, and each instrument plays both themes, often in imitation. The piano part, interestingly, is not very difficult in comparison to Prokofiev's many virtuoso piano works; Zimro's pianist, Leo Berdichevsky, a graduate of the Petrograd and Berlin conservatories (Levin 2006, 77) was probably an amateur.
Jewish folk music has a paradoxically happy-yet-tragic and festive quality that many, including Dmitri Shostakovich, found very powerful. The first theme, un poco allegro, has a jumpy and festive rhythm, unmistakably evoking klezmer music by alternating low and high registers and using "hairpin" dynamics (Nice 2003, 161). It also has a very characteristic use of semitone intervals, which recur throughout the whole work. The second theme, piu mosso, is a nostalgic cantabile theme introduced in the cello and then passed to the first violin (Nice 2003, 161).
- Heiles, Anne Mischakoff. 2007. America’s Concertmasters. Detroit Monographs in Musicology 51. Harmonie Park Press. ISBN 9780899901398.
- Levin, Neil W. 2006. "The Russians Are Coming!—The Russians Have Stayed! A Little Known Episode in the History of the New Jewish National Music School: The Tour of the Palestine Chamber Music Ensemble 'Zimro'". In Jèudische Kunstmusik im 20. Jahrhundert: Quellenlge, Entsehungsgeschichte, Stilanalysen, edited by Jascha Nemtsov, 73–90. Jüdische Musik 3. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05293-1.
- Nice, David. 2003. Prokofiev: From Russia to the West, 1891–1935. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09914-0.
- Prokofiev, Sergei. 1998. Selected Letters of Sergei Prokofiev, edited and translated by Harlow Loomis Robinson. Boston: Northeastern University Press. ISBN 9781555533472.
- Kravec, Nelli Âkovlevna (Кравец, Нелли Яковлевна). 2006. Музыкальная деятельность камерного ансамбля 'Зимро' и Увертюра на еврейские темы С. Прокофьева [Musical Activities of the Chamber Ensemble Zimro and Uvertûra na evrejskie temy (Overture on Hebrew Themes) by Prokofiev]. In Из истории еврейской музыки в России. Выпуск 2: Материалы международной научной конференции 'Еврейская профессиональная музыка в России: Становление и развитие', Санкт-Петербург, 1–2 декабря 2003 года. [On the History of Jewish Music in Russia. II: Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference Jewish Professional Music in Russia: Its Formation and Development, St. Petersburg, 1–2 December 2003], edited by Galina Viktorovna Kopytova and Aleksandr Stanislavovič Frenkel', 265–82. Russian Federation: Evrejskij Obŝinnyj Centr. (Еврейский Общинный Центр).
- Overture on Hebrew Themes: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Palmer, Christopher (1992). "Liner notes to Prokofiev: String Quartets, Hyperion CD CDH55032" (PDF). Hyperion Records.
- Way, Joseph (1997). "Program notes". Sierra Chamber Society.
- Video - Prokofiev Overture on Hebrew Themes - Complete (10:28).