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Owned-and-operated television stations in the United States

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In the United States, owned-and-operated television stations (frequently abbreviated as O&Os) constitute only a portion of their parent television networks' station bodies, due to ownership limits imposed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Currently, the total number of television stations owned by any company (including a television network) can only reach a maximum of 39% of all U.S. households;[1] in the past, the ownership limit was much lower, and was determined by a specific number of television stations rather than basing the limits on total market coverage.


At the dawn of the American television industry, each company was only allowed to own a total of five television stations around the country. As such, when the networks launched their television operations, they found it more advantageous to put their five owned-and-operated stations in large media markets that had more households (and therefore, denser populations) on the belief that it would result in higher revenue. In other markets, they opted to run their programming on stations through contractual arrangements, making them affiliates instead.

The five-station limit posed a problem for the DuMont Television Network, the first attempt at a "fourth" television network. Paramount Pictures, which had owned KTLA (channel 5) in Los Angeles and WBKB (channel 4, now WBBM-TV on channel 2) in Chicago, owned a share of the network. However, the FCC declared that Paramount controlled DuMont and thus forbade the network and the studio from acquiring any more stations.[2] This was one of the factors that led to DuMont shutting down in August 1956.

For much of the era from 1958 to 1986, the major network-owned stations were distributed as follows: ABC, CBS and NBC each owned stations in the top three markets (New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago). Between 1958 and 1965, fourth-ranked Philadelphia housed CBS-owned WCAU-TV (channel 10) and NBC-owned WRCV-TV (channel 3, now KYW-TV), a station which NBC had acquired two years earlier through a trade with Westinghouse Broadcasting in return for NBC's television and radio stations in Cleveland. The FCC reversed the trade in 1965 and NBC regained control of the Cleveland television station, which is today known as WKYC. Each network owned stations in other markets where the other networks did not: in addition to Cleveland, these were ABC's KGO-TV (channel 7) in San Francisco and WXYZ-TV (channel 7) in Detroit, NBC's WRC-TV (channel 4) in Washington, D.C., and CBS' KMOX-TV (channel 4, now KMOV) in St. Louis.

As a result of a revision to the FCC's media ownership rules in 1999, a company can now own any number of television stations with a combined market reach of less than 39% of the country, but cannot own two of the four highest-rated stations in any market.[1] Still, O&Os in the United States are primarily found in large markets such as New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago, among others. Despite that, network-owned stations can still be found in smaller markets (for example, KFSN-TV (channel 30) in Fresno, California is an ABC O&O; WOGX (channel 51) in Ocala, Florida, is technically a Fox O&O, but is operated out of the studios of and serves as a semi-satellite of the network's Orlando O&O WOFL).


Early development

Local television stations in the United States were concentrated on the VHF dial (channels 2–13) in the early days of the industry. However, it soon became apparent that the twelve channels available on the VHF dial would not be sufficient to meet the demands of the growing industry. As a result, in 1952, the FCC opened up a new spectrum of frequencies on the UHF dial (channels 14–83) for terrestrial television.[3] As an incentive for companies to operate UHF stations, the FCC relaxed the ownership limit for a given entity from five to seven stations, provided that no more than five were on the VHF dial.

With this opportunity to expand its roster of O&Os, NBC bought WBUF-TV (channel 17) in Buffalo in 1955[4] and WKNB-TV (channel 30) in New Britain, Connecticut (near Hartford) in 1957, and changed WKNB's call letters to WNBC-TV (the present-day WNBC in New York City used the WRCA-TV callsign from 1954 to 1960). The network wanted to see if a UHF station could effectively compete against VHF stations, and attempted to make the stations more competitive by investing in significant equipment upgrades. However, WBUF consistently ranked behind its VHF competitors, WGR-TV (channel 2, now WGRZ) and WBEN-TV (channel 4, now WIVB-TV). Similarly, WNBC consistently rated behind VHF competitor WNHC-TV (channel 8, now WTNH); WNBC faced an additional problem as its signal was not strong enough to cover New Haven and western Connecticut (nearly all of Connecticut is part of the Hartford-New Haven market).

By the time the FCC allocated additional VHF stations to Buffalo (WKBW-TV, channel 7) and Hartford (WTIC-TV channel 3, now WFSB), NBC decided that its experiment was a lost cause, and put WBUF and WNBC up for sale. While it found a buyer for WNBC (which retained its NBC affiliation), there were no takers for WBUF, and it went off the air in 1958. NBC then affiliated with WGR-TV, where it remains to this day. NBC donated WBUF's license and some of its equipment to PBS member station WNED-TV, which took over the channel 17 frequency in 1959 (due to a number of transactions, the WBUF-TV license is now held by WNLO and the channel 17 frequency was later held by WBXZ-LD; WNED still holds the virtual channel 17 in the Buffalo market, but has not advertised it since the early 2000s).

Similarly, CBS bought UHF stations WGTH-TV (channel 18) in Hartford[5] and WOKY-TV (channel 19, later on channel 18) in Milwaukee in 1955, and changed their call letters to WHCT-TV and WXIX-TV, respectively. However, CBS' ratings were astonishingly low in those markets. In 1959, CBS decided to move its Hartford and Milwaukee affiliations to VHF stations WTIC-TV and WITI-TV (channel 6) respectively, and sold off what became WHCT (now Univision affiliate WUVN) and WXIX (now CW affiliate WVTV) – ironically, CBS was sent back to the UHF dial in Milwaukee following an affiliation switch in December 1994, which saw WITI becoming a Fox station, while its former CBS affiliation moved to WDJT-TV (channel 58).

1980s and beyond

The underperformance of early UHF O&Os (and UHF stations in general) was primarily attributed to the fact that manufacturers were not required to equip new television sets with UHF tuners until 1964, following the 1961 passage of the All-Channel Receiver Act. While the technical problems which plagued early UHF stations had largely disappeared by the 1980s with the spread of UHF tuners and (in particular) cable television, UHF stations in many television markets continued to be compared unfavorably against their VHF counterparts, often simply by virtue of viewer loyalty. As such, the "Big Three" networks (ABC, NBC, and CBS) were still not inclined to acquire UHF stations as network-owned outlets; however, ABC did keep Fresno's KFSN (which was a CBS affiliate at the time the deal was reached) after the network merged with Capital Cities Communications in 1986, as KFSN was the highest-rated station in a market where all of the full-power television stations were on the UHF band, along with the fact it saw the advantage of having a statewide network to share California news coverage and events with, using the resources of KFSN, KGO-TV, and KABC-TV.

By the time the Fox network launched in October 1986, many of the nation's VHF stations were already affiliated with one of the "Big Three" networks. As a result, Fox had little choice but to affiliate with UHF stations in most markets upon its launch (the few VHF outlets that the network initially affiliated with, a few of which were owned by Fox itself, were in a handful of large and mid-sized markets; however, Fox was forced to align with a UHF outlet in a few markets where it initially approached a VHF independent station for an affiliation offer and was turned down). The network even had UHF O&Os in markets like Chicago (WFLD, channel 32), Houston (KRIV, channel 26), and Dallas (KDAF, channel 33). However, by the time that the National Football League awarded Fox the rights to broadcast games from the National Football Conference in 1993, it became convinced that the network would not be viable without more VHF affiliates. As such, in May 1994, the network arranged a deal with New World Communications, which saw nearly all of that group's stations (most of which were VHF outlets) becoming Fox affiliates.[6] Fox then acquired New World Communications outright in July 1996,[7] and those VHF stations (including one in Dallas) became Fox owned-and-operated stations in the process. The network, however, did acquire more UHF O&Os in subsequent years, including Philadelphia's WTXF-TV (channel 29) in 1995, Orlando's WOFL (channel 35) in 2002, and Charlotte's WJZY (channel 46) in 2013.

As a result of the New World deal, CBS lost its longtime Detroit affiliate WJBK (channel 2) to Fox. CBS then unsuccessfully sought to affiliate with other stations in the market before it eventually purchased low-rated ethnic independent WGPR-TV (channel 62) and changed the station's callsign to WWJ-TV (a callsign once used by one of the stations that CBS approached for an affiliation, WDIV-TV) in 1995. The station continues to receive low ratings, and after a brief attempt at running an 11:00 p.m. newscast from 2001 to 2002 that was produced by sister station WKBD-TV (which voluntarily shut down its news department shortly afterward to enter into a short-lived news share agreement with WXYZ-TV), was the only CBS owned-and-operated station without a local news presence until 2009, when a morning newscast produced by the Detroit Free Press premiered (that program, First Forecast Mornings, was canceled in 2012). CBS also bought KEYE-TV (channel 42) in Austin, Texas from the Granite Broadcasting Corporation in 2000, five years after that station took the CBS affiliation from KTBC, another former New World station that switched to Fox.

NBC would not buy a UHF O&O again until 1995, when it acquired WNCN (channel 17) in Goldsboro, North Carolina (part of the RaleighDurham market). It subsequently purchased KNSD (channel 39) in San Diego in 1996, and it repurchased channel 30 in Hartford, now WVIT, in 1997.

Currently, most American networks have at least one owned-and-operated station on a UHF frequency (which now usually corresponds to the station's physical digital channel, particularly in cases where a station previously operated on a VHF channel, which now corresponds to its virtual channel, prior to the 2009 digital television transition). Newer networks, such as Univision and Ion Television, even have mostly UHF O&Os.

Ownership and network changes

Mergers, acquisitions, and other business deals between television networks and other companies sometimes require a network to sell off an O&O, in order to stay under the ownership cap. In addition, networks may choose to sell off O&Os in smaller markets in order to concentrate on their stations in larger markets, or to give themselves leeway to purchase stations in other growing markets. The following are examples of transactions involving owned-and-operated stations in the United States:

DuMont Television Network

The DuMont network found itself in financial trouble in 1954, and decided to sell off its Pittsburgh owned-and-operated station, WDTV (channel 2), which was the only commercial VHF station in what was then a top ten television market in the United States. Westinghouse Electric Corporation bought the station for $6.75 million, and changed its call letters to KDKA-TV (that station now operates as a CBS O&O, as a result of the network's 1995 merger with Westinghouse[8]).

However, even with income generated from the sale, DuMont was never able to recover from its problems, and the network shut down in August 1956. Its two other owned-and-operated stations, WABD (channel 5, now WNYW) in New York City and WTTG (channel 5) in Washington, D.C., became independent stations and remained so until October 1986, when they became Fox O&Os at the network's inception.


In 1986, CBS sold its longtime owned-and-operated station in St. Louis, KMOX-TV, to Viacom (then a separate entity from CBS, which merged with the network in 2000 before splitting into separate companies six years later; the two would remerge to become ViacomCBS on December 4, 2019). Viacom changed the station's callsign to KMOV, then sold it to Belo Corporation in 1997, in a three-way swap that also saw Viacom acquiring KSTW (channel 11) in SeattleTacoma from Cox Enterprises, and that company in return getting KIRO-TV (channel 7) from Belo. Belo merged with the Gannett Company in 2013; as a condition of the deal, KMOV was acquired by the Meredith Corporation in 2014.[9] CBS purchased KOVR (channel 13) in Stockton, California from the Sinclair Broadcast Group in May 2005.

On February 7, 2007, CBS announced the sale of its owned-and-operated stations in Salt Lake City (KUTV and its satellite in St. George, Utah, KUSG) and Austin (KEYE-TV) to Four Points Media Group, a holding company owned by Cerberus Capital Management as part of a group deal which also included two CW owned-and-operated stations (WTVX in West Palm Beach and WLWC in Providence), one low-power MyNetworkTV affiliate and one low-power Azteca América affiliate (both located in West Palm Beach). Six days later, CBS announced that it was swapping its O&O in Green Bay, WFRV-TV (channel 5), and its satellite in Escanaba, Michigan, WJMN-TV (channel 3), to Liberty Media in exchange for common CBS stock held by Liberty Media; the sale of WFRV/WJMN closed on April 18, 2007. The Four Points transaction was approved by the FCC on November 21, 2007, and was finalized on January 10, 2008.[10] In 2012, the Four Points stations were acquired by the Sinclair Broadcast Group; WFRV/WJMN was sold to the Nexstar Broadcasting Group in 2011.


For much of the modern television era, NBC did not have an owned-and-operated station in Philadelphia. In 1955, NBC forced Westinghouse to trade its NBC-affiliated Philadelphia cluster of KYW-AM (1060) and WPTZ-TV (channel 3) to NBC in exchange for WTAM-AM-FM and WNBK-TV in Cleveland. Westinghouse only agreed to the trade after NBC threatened not only to yank its programming from WPTZ, but also Westinghouse-owned WBZ-TV (channel 4) in Boston. NBC changed the callsigns of the Philadelphia stations to WRCV-AM-TV, while Westinghouse changed the Cleveland stations' callsigns to KYW-AM-FM-TV. NBC's then-ownership of Philadelphia's channel 3 was cited by CBS when it purchased its then-affiliate WCAU-TV in 1958, despite FCC rules at the time barring companies from owning stations with overlapping signals, as WRCA/WRCV did.

In 1965, NBC was forced to reverse the trade on orders from the Federal Communications Commission and the United States Department of Justice. WRCV-TV's callsign was then changed to KYW-TV to match its radio cousin. When NBC regained control of the Cleveland stations, it changed their callsigns to WKYC-AM-FM-TV, because of the AM station's popularity as "KY11". It sold the radio stations in 1972, but kept WKYC-TV until 1990, when majority control of the station was sold to Multimedia, Inc. (which later merged with the Gannett Company in 1995); NBC remained minority owner of WKYC-TV until 1999 when it sold its remaining interest to Gannett. NBC continued to pursue efforts to acquire an owned-and-operated station in Philadelphia, especially when KYW became its weakest major-market affiliate for much of the 1980s. However, NBC was unsuccessful until 1995, when it won a bidding war for longtime CBS O&O WCAU-TV.

In 1997, LIN TV Corporation sold a 76% stake in Dallas-Fort Worth's KXAS-TV (channel 5) to NBC in exchange for 24% of San Diego's KNSD; therefore, NBC owned 76% of both stations. Although this was not defined as a traditional O&O arrangement, NBC's controlling interest in the stations allowed them to be considered NBC owned-and-operated stations. In February 2013, LIN pulled out of the joint venture, giving NBC 100% ownership of the two stations.[11]

In December 2001, NBC acquired an O&O in the San Francisco Bay Area, when it purchased San Jose-based KNTV (channel 11) from the Granite Broadcasting Corporation; the sale to NBC was finalized in April 2002. Prior to the purchase, KNTV had been affiliated with ABC for most of its history, while NBC was affiliated with KRON-TV (channel 4); by 2000, ABC wished for its own longtime San Francisco O&O station, KGO-TV, to exclusively serve the San Jose portion of the market and terminated its 40-year affiliation with KNTV; while KRON, which had recently been sold to Young Broadcasting, opted to end its NBC affiliation after 52 years in the wake of a dispute with NBC (which lost a bidding war for the station to Young as KRON's longtime owners, the Chronicle Publishing Company, sold off its media properties[12]) over the terms of the renewing the station's affiliation contract. Granite, which had been operating KNTV as a WB affiliate since it ended its affiliation with ABC, offered to pay NBC a then unheard-of annual payment of $37 million for the station to become an NBC affiliate, an offer which NBC accepted before later finalizing the outright acquisition[13][14][15] (back in 1960, ABC allowed KNTV to be its affiliate because it agreed to not serve San Jose directly, but focus more on the Monterey Bay area, which was too far south to receive KGO's over-the-air signal clearly; KNTV also agreed to transmit at a lower power so as not to unreasonably overlap with KGO's signal; upon the July 2000 termination of the affiliation agreement, ABC added KGO to cable systems in the Salinas-Monterey area to compensate for the loss of ABC programming on KNTV, a situation that continued until the summer of 2011, when the area's NBC affiliate, Hearst Television-owned KSBW-TV (channel 8), relaunched its second digital subchannel to serve as a separate ABC affiliate for the area).

On March 19, 2008, NBC announced its intention to sell two additional O&Os: WTVJ in Miami and WVIT in New Britain-Hartford, Connecticut. On July 18 of that year, it was announced that WTVJ would be sold to Post-Newsweek Stations (now the Graham Media Group), then owner of Miami's ABC affiliate WPLG (channel 10). Had the FCC approved this deal, it would have resulted in the Miami market being home to the largest duopoly in the United States between two "Big Three" or "Big Four" network affiliates. WVIT was later withdrawn from the selling block, as all of the offers made for that station were much lower than NBC's asking price. The sale of WTVJ also fell through due to the delay in FCC approval for the deal, the election of Barack Obama as president effectively de facto signaling a rejection of the deal from a Democratic-led FCC board of commissioners was coming, and public opposition over the proposed sale of WTVJ to the owner of another major network station.

In 2016, NBC announced that it would launch a new O&O in Boston (WBTS-LD) on January 1, 2017, replacing WHDH-TV as the network's Boston affiliate.


Detroit's WXYZ-TV had been an ABC owned-and-operated station from its sign-on in 1948, as WXYZ radio (1270 AM, now WXYT) had been an affiliate of ABC radio's predecessor, the NBC Blue Network. However, when Capital Cities Communications acquired ABC in 1985, the combined assets of the new company exceeded the FCC's ownership limit at the time. As such, the network opted to sell WXYZ to the E. W. Scripps Company, having remained with ABC ever since then as an affiliate of the network.

During the series of network affiliation switches that was spurred by Fox's 1994 deal with New World Communications, ABC bought two stations in markets adjacent to Detroit: WTVG (channel 13) in Toledo, Ohio and WJRT (channel 12) in Flint, Michigan – specifically in order to keep some fringe suburban coverage of its programming in the Detroit market, in the event that Scripps would attempt to affiliate WXYZ-TV with another network, resulting in a possible move of ABC to a lower-tier station in the market. Though WXYZ stayed with ABC after Scripps agreed to keep that station affiliated with the network in exchange for affiliation deals with stations that the company owned in other cities, ABC decided to retain ownership of WTVG and WJRT.

Capital Cities also owned two CBS affiliates – Fresno's KFSN and Raleigh-Durham's WTVD (channel 11) – and chose to switch them both to ABC. CBS programming moved to former ABC affiliates in the two markets, WRAL-TV (channel 5) in Raleigh-Durham and KGPE (channel 47) in Fresno; WRAL was one of CBS's strongest affiliates until it switched to NBC in 2016, instead becoming one of NBC's strongest affiliates.

On November 3, 2010, ABC reached an agreement to sell WJRT and WTVG back to former owner SJL Broadcasting, amidst speculation that The Walt Disney Company might spin off ABC;[16] both stations retained their ABC affiliations (SJL then flipped the stations to Gray Television, at a significant profit, in July 2014). When the sale was completed, KFSN in Fresno (at the time ranked as the 55th largest media market) would then become the smallest English-language owned-and-operated major network station by market size (not counting satellites and semi-satellites). The sale was completed on April 1, 2011.[17] The Disney spin-off of ABC has never occurred, mainly due to insider trading allegations that scuttled the deal.


In 1987, Fox purchased its Boston affiliate, WFXT (channel 25). The network's then-parent company News Corporation (whose entertainment properties largely became part of the restructured 21st Century Fox through its July 2013 spin-off of its publishing division) also owned The Boston Herald, requiring Fox to obtain a temporary cross-ownership waiver for the station. When the waiver to retain ownership of both the newspaper and television station expired, WFXT was sold to the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association (NBA). The Celtics could not survive as a broadcaster, and Fox purchased WFXT a second time in 1995 after the Herald was sold.

As a result of the aforementioned Fox/New World partnership, Fox had to sell off its original O&Os in Dallas (KDAF) and Atlanta (WATL, channel 36), respectively selling them to Renaissance Broadcasting and Qwest Broadcasting. KDFW (channel 4) and WAGA-TV (channel 5) became Fox owned-and-operated stations in the respective markets after Fox Television Stations merged with New World Communications (KDAF is now a CW affiliate owned by Tribune Broadcasting, which ironically acquired both Qwest and Renaissance during the late 1990s, and held a partial ownership stake in Qwest; WATL, also a former WB affiliate, is now a MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Tegna).

On June 13, 2007, Fox announced its intention to sell nine of its owned-and-operated stations: WJW (channel 8) in Cleveland, Ohio; KDVR (channel 31) in Denver, Colorado; KTVI (channel 2) in St. Louis, Missouri; WDAF-TV (channel 4) in Kansas City, Missouri; WITI in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; KSTU (channel 13) in Salt Lake City, Utah; WHBQ-TV (channel 13) in Memphis, Tennessee; WBRC (channel 6) in Birmingham, Alabama and WGHP (channel 8) in Greensboro, North Carolina. On December 21 of that year, it was announced that eight of the stations – WHBQ being the only one not included – would be sold to Local TV, a broadcast holding company controlled by the private equity firm Oak Hill Capital Partners;[18] the sale closed on July 14, 2008.

Of the eight former Fox O&Os involved in the sale to Local TV, WBRC ended up being traded to Raycom Media on March 31, 2009, in exchange for Richmond, Virginia CBS affiliate WTVR-TV (channel 6); WBRC was subsequently acquired by Gray Television as part of its merger with Raycom, which was completed on January 2, 2019.[19] WHBQ was later withdrawn from the selling block after Fox failed to find a suitable buyer for the station, as both Local TV and Raycom both already owned stations in that market (WREG (channel 3) and WMC-TV (channel 5), respectively) which would easily put them over the FCC's market ownership caps, and the only other buyer that might have been interested – Newport Television – already owned two stations in Memphis at the time: WPTY-TV (channel 24, now WATN-TV) and WLMT (channel 30). The remaining seven former Fox O&Os were acquired by Tribune Broadcasting as part of its purchase of Local TV, an acquisition that closed on December 27, 2013.[20] Sinclair Broadcast Group would announce its acquisition of Tribune in 2017, which would have seen Fox reacquire WJW, KSTU, and KDVR and acquire WSFL-TV (channel 39) in Miami, KSWB-TV (channel 69) in San Diego, KTXL (channel 40) in Sacramento, and KCPQ-TV (channel 13) in Seattle, which all would have become owned-and-operated stations of the network;[21] however, Tribune terminated the deal in August 2018.[22][23]

On June 24, 2014, Fox announced that it would trade WFXT and WHBQ to the Cox Media Group, in exchange for the San Francisco duopoly of Fox affiliate KTVU (channel 2) and independent station KICU-TV (channel 36), which Fox had sought to acquire for several years (in this instance, it was part of an attempt by the network to acquire O&Os in additional markets where a franchise in the National Football Conference, from which most of Fox's NFL game telecasts come, is based).[24][25][26] The trade was completed on October 8, 2014.[27]

In December 2018, Nexstar Media Group announced its acquisition of Tribune. As was the case with Sinclair's failed acquisition of the company, Fox sought to buy certain Fox-affiliated stations owned by Tribune, with KDVR, KCPQ, and WJW emerging as potential candidates.[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38] However, in March 2019, Nexstar announced that KSTU and WSFL-TV would be acquired by the E.W. Scripps Company; Nexstar intended to retain KSWB, KTXL, WJW, KCPQ, and KDVR after the transaction is completed. Two months after the close of the Nexstar deal, Fox Television Stations and Nexstar announced a swap, where Fox would acquire KCPQ and KZJO in Seattle, along with a re-acquisition of WITI in Milwaukee, with Nexstar acquiring Fox's Charlotte, North Carolina duopoly of WJZY and WMYT-TV.

The WB

From January 1995 to September 2006, Time Warner and Tribune Broadcasting jointly owned The WB Television Network. Tribune initially held a 12.5% ownership interest in the network at its launch, a stake that it later increased to 22%. As a result of its partnership, in November 1993 (fourteen months before the network debuted), Tribune agreed to a deal to affiliate most of its independent stations with The WB.[39] Despite Tribune's minority stake, the company's stations were not considered to be WB owned-and-operated-stations due to Time Warner's controlling interest in the network. This resulted in The WB having the unusual distinction of being the only broadcast network that did not have O&Os in New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago throughout its existence (the three Tribune-owned WB affiliates in those cities – WPIX, KTLA and WGN-TV, respectively – were affiliates of the network as a result).

However, Tribune was the only one of the two companies involved in The WB that owned any stations aligned with the network as Time Warner did not own any television stations at the network's launch and would not own one until its 1996 merger with the Turner Broadcasting System, owners of Atlanta superstation WTBS (channel 17, now WPCH-TV; its national feed, TBS, is now a separate basic cable channel). On January 24, 2006, Time Warner and CBS Corporation announced that they would merge The WB with the CBS-owned United Paramount Network to form a new broadcast network called The CW.[40] All except three of Tribune's 19 WB stations joined The CW when it launched on September 18, 2006, through ten-year affiliation agreements (although two – KSWB-TV (channel 69, now a Fox affiliate) in San Diego and WTTV (channel 4, now a CBS affiliate) in Indianapolis – have since disaffiliated from the network under Tribune ownership, while another – WLVI (channel 56) in Boston, which remains with The CW – was sold by Tribune to Sunbeam Television in September 2006). Tribune, however, does not have an ownership interest in The CW, having opted to forego a stake in the network in order to avoid having to finance shutdown costs for The WB.

ACME Communications, which operated WB-affiliated stations in small and mid-sized markets, was owned by Jamie Kellner, the network's president from its 1995 launch until 2001. However, neither Time Warner or Tribune considered the ACME stations on the same level as the Tribune stations, nor did Time Warner have any interest in the stations outside of traditional affiliation agreements, or vice versa did ACME have any interest in Time Warner. Despite this, the ACME stations were among the first awarded de facto affiliation agreements for The CW when the network began to open up affiliation negotiations in March 2006, as many of its stations were among the top affiliates of The WB by viewership.


UPN stations that were formerly owned by Chris-Craft Industries and those that were owned by CBS Corporation at the end of the network's run were sometimes considered owned-and-operated stations of the network, and several transactions have involved these stations. Not too long after becoming a UPN owned-and-operated station itself, San Antonio station KRRT (channel 35, now KMYS) was sold to Jet Broadcasting in 1995, eventually becoming an affiliate of The WB (the station is now a CW affiliate that is operated by former owner Sinclair Broadcast Group, and owned by Sinclair partner company Deerfield Media).

On August 12, 2000, Chris-Craft sold its UPN stations to the Fox Television Stations subsidiary of News Corporation for $5.5 billion[41] – these stations had been stripped of their status as UPN owned-and-operated stations earlier that year due to Viacom's buyout of Chris-Craft's stake in the network, but remained with UPN as affiliates. Of those stations, San Francisco's KBHK (channel 44, now KBCW) was traded to the Paramount Stations Group, while Portland's KPTV (channel 12) was traded to the Meredith Corporation. Both KPTV and former Minneapolis-St. Paul sister station KMSP-TV (channel 9) traded their UPN affiliations with Fox affiliates in those markets that they respectively became co-owned with, WFTC (channel 29) and KPDX (channel 49). Fox had acquired WFTC from Clear Channel Communications not long after the Chris-Craft purchase was finalized, while Meredith already owned KPDX at the time it purchased KPTV. The other UPN stations that remained under Fox ownership retained their affiliations with that network, but were no longer O&Os – giving UPN the distinction of being one of only two broadcast networks whose stations in the three largest markets of New York, Los Angeles and Chicago were not owned-and-operated stations (along with The WB); WWOR-TV (channel 9) in Secaucus, New Jersey (part of the New York City market) and KCOP-TV (channel 13) in Los Angeles were de facto O&Os prior to Viacom's buyout of Chris-Craft's stake in UPN, while WPWR-TV (channel 50) in Chicago was an affiliate of UPN throughout the network's run (and would not be co-owned with the two other larger-market stations until after Fox purchased it from Newsweb Corporation in 2002).

In September 2006, these stations became O&Os of MyNetworkTV, which was created in response to The CW's decision to affiliate stations owned by Tribune Broadcasting and network part-owner CBS Corporation's CBS Television Stations subsidiary with the network instead of Fox's UPN-affiliated stations.[42] In fact, two of the former Chris-Craft stations have the distinction of being owned-and-operated stations of two networks: WWOR-TV (the second in the New York City market after sister station WNYW, which has been an O&O of DuMont and Fox), and KCOP-TV (the first and only station in the Los Angeles market), both having been O&Os of UPN and MyNetworkTV.

Viacom/CBS sold off several UPN owned-and-operated stations during the network's final five years. Mercury Broadcasting bought Wichita, Kansas' KSCC (channel 36, now KMTW) in 2001 (the station is now owned by Deerfield Media under a local marketing agreement with Sinclair Broadcast Group); KTXH (channel 20) in Houston and WDCA (channel 20) in Washington, D.C. were sold to Fox Television Stations that same year (as part of the aforementioned swap with KBHK, both are now owned-and-operated stations of MyNetworkTV). In 2005, WNDY-TV (channel 23) in Indianapolis and WWHO (channel 53) in Columbus were sold to LIN TV; in 2006, KAUT-TV (channel 43) in Oklahoma City was sold to The New York Times Company (which later sold its entire television group to Local TV, which in turn was subsequently acquired by Tribune Broadcasting), and in 2008, WUPL (channel 54) in New Orleans was sold to Belo (which subsequently merged with the Gannett Company).

The CW

Because of CBS Corporation's ownership stake in The CW Television Network, while not a traditional O&O arrangement, stations owned by the company that carry programming from the network can be considered O&Os. In February 2007, as part of the aforementioned group deal that included two of CBS's O&Os, CBS Corporation sold its CW owned-and-operated stations in West Palm Beach, Florida (WTVX, channel 34) and Providence (WLWC, channel 28) to Four Points Media Group. The Four Points stations were subsequently acquired by the Sinclair Broadcast Group; WLWC, in turn, has since been spun off to OTA Broadcasting, LLC.

In June 2010, CBS announced the sale of its Norfolk, Virginia CW O&O WGNT (channel 27) to Local TV, then owner of that market's CBS affiliate WTKR-TV (channel 3) (as well as seven former Fox O&O stations). This created the second television duopoly in that market (the first involved LIN TV-owned NBC affiliate WAVY-TV (channel 10) and Fox affiliate WVBT (channel 43)). As part of the deal, Local TV would take over the operations of WGNT through a time brokerage agreement while the deal awaited FCC approval. Until the sale closed on August 4, WGNT was the smallest station by market size to be owned by CBS following the Four Points Media Group deal. The sale of WGNT also made WJZ-TV (channel 13) in Baltimore the smallest station by market size that is still owned by CBS (WGNT, along with WTKR, is now owned by Dreamcatcher Broadcasting and operated by Tribune Broadcasting under a shared services agreement[20]).

Other networks

In 1999, not long after Ion Television launched as Pax TV, its parent company Paxson Communications (now Ion Media Networks) sold its Dayton, Green Bay and Decatur O&Os – WDPX (channel 26), WPXG (channel 14) and WPXU (channel 23), respectively – to ACME Communications; the stations later changed their respective callsigns to WBDT, WCWF and WBUI. All three stations then became primary affiliates of The WB (though they retained secondary affiliations with Pax until 2005); the stations are now CW affiliates (WBDT and WCWF were sold to LIN TV, while WBUI was sold to GOCOM Media).

Two years later, in 2001, Pax sold its Little Rock owned-and-operated station KYPX (channel 42) to Equity Broadcasting, which switched the station's affiliation to The WB as KWBF (that station is now MyNetworkTV affiliate KARZ-TV, owned by the Nexstar Media Group). In 2003, Pax sold its Albuquerque, New Mexico O&O, KAPX (channel 14, now KTFQ-TV), to Univision Communications, which turned it into an O&O of TeleFutura. That same year, Paxson sold KPXJ (channel 21) in Shreveport, Louisiana, to KTBS, Inc. (owner of the station's ABC-affiliated sister station KTBS-TV); that station became a UPN affiliate and is also now an affiliate of The CW.

Multiple networks

Philadelphia's WCAU-TV had been a CBS owned-and-operated station starting in 1958. However, after CBS announced its alliance with Westinghouse Broadcasting in 1995, the network chose to affiliate with Westinghouse's KYW-TV, Philadelphia's longtime NBC affiliate. After a bidding war, WCAU was sold to NBC. KYW became a CBS owned-and-operated station after Westinghouse's merger with CBS a few months later.

As part of the same deal, NBC in turn transferred its own O&O stations in Denver (KCNC-TV, channel 4) and Salt Lake City (KUTV) to Westinghouse/CBS, and those stations became CBS O&Os after Westinghouse merged with CBS. NBC and CBS also swapped transmitting facilities in Miami between the then-weaker CBS-owned WCIX (channel 6, now WFOR-TV, channel 4) and the then-stronger NBC-owned WTVJ (channel 4, now on the weaker channel 6 signal under the same calls).

Stations that have been O&Os of more than one major network

This includes future O&Os, and also counts stations aligned with UPN, The WB and The CW.
Station Networks station served as an O&O
DuMont and CBS KDKA-TV 2/Pittsburgh
DuMont and Fox WNYW 5/New York City
WTTG 5/Washington, D.C.
Fox and MyNetworkTV WFTC 29/Minneapolis/St. Paul
NBC and CBS KCNC-TV 4/Denver
KUTV 2/Salt Lake City
KYW-TV 3/Philadelphia
CBS and NBC WCAU-TV 10/Philadelphia
UPN and Fox KMSP-TV 9/Minneapolis-St. Paul
KPTV 12/Portland
UPN and MyNetworkTV KCOP-TV 13/Los Angeles
KTXH 20/Houston
KUTP 45/Phoenix
WDCA 20/Washington, D.C.
WPWR-TV 50/Gary-Chicago
WRBW 65/Orlando
WUTB 24/Baltimore
WWOR-TV 9/Secaucus-New York City

O&O stations of U.S. broadcast television networks


Current owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Owned since
Chicago, Illinois WLS-TV 7 1948
Durham - Raleigh - Fayetteville, North Carolina WTVD 11 1986
Fresno, California KFSN-TV 30 1986
Houston, Texas KTRK-TV 13 1986
Los Angeles, California KABC-TV 7 1949
New York City, New York WABC-TV 7 1948
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania WPVI-TV 6 1986
San Francisco - Oakland - San Jose, California KGO-TV 7 1949

Former owned-and-operated stations

Market Station Years owned Current ownership status
Detroit, Michigan WXYZ-TV 7 1948–1986 ABC affiliate owned by E. W. Scripps Company
Flint - Bay City - Saginaw, Michigan WJRT-TV 12 1995–2011 ABC affiliate owned by Gray Television
Toledo, Ohio WTVG 13 1995–2011 ABC affiliate owned by Gray Television


Current owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Owned since
Baltimore, Maryland WJZ-TV 13 1995
Boston, Massachusetts WBZ-TV 4 1995
Chicago, Illinois WBBM-TV 2 1953
Denver, Colorado KCNC-TV 4 1995
Detroit, Michigan WWJ-TV 62 1995
Fort Worth - Dallas, Texas KTVT 11 1999
Los Angeles, California KCBS-TV 2 1951
Miami - Fort Lauderdale, Florida WFOR-TV 4 1989
Minneapolis - St. Paul WCCO-TV 4 1992
New York City, New York WCBS-TV 2 1941
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania KYW-TV 3 1995
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania KDKA-TV 2 1995
San Francisco - Oakland - San Jose, California KPIX-TV 5 1995
Stockton - Sacramento -Modesto, California KOVR 13 2005
Walker, Minnesota KCCW-TV 12
(satellite of WCCO-TV)

Former owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Years owned Current ownership status
Austin, Texas KEYE-TV 42 1999–2007 CBS affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group
Green Bay, Wisconsin WFRV-TV 5 1991–2007 CBS affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Hartford, Connecticut WHCT 18 1955–1959 Univision affiliate, WUVN, owned by Entravision Communications
Los Angeles, California KTTV 11[n1 1] 1949–1950 Fox O&O owned by Fox Television Stations
Escanaba - Marquette, Michigan WJMN-TV 3
(satellite of WFRV)
1991–2007 CBS affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Milwaukee, Wisconsin WXIX 19/18 1955–1959 CW affiliate, WVTV, owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania WCAU-TV 10 1958–1995 NBC O&O owned by NBCUniversal
Providence, Rhode Island WPRI-TV 12 1995–1996 CBS affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Salt Lake City, Utah KUTV 2 1995–2007 CBS affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group
St. Louis, Missouri KMOX-TV 4 1958–1986 CBS affiliate, KMOV, owned by Gray Television
Washington, D.C. WTOP-TV 9[n1 2] 1950–1954 CBS affiliate, WUSA-TV, owned by Tegna, Inc.

The CW

Current owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Owned since
Atlanta, Georgia WUPA 69 2006
Detroit, Michigan WKBD-TV 50 2006
Jeannette - Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania WPCW 19 2006
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania WPSG 57 2006
Sacramento - Stockton - Modesto, California KMAX-TV 31 2006
San Francisco - Oakland - San Jose, California KBCW 44 2006
Seattle - Tacoma, Washington KSTW 11 2006
Tampa - St. Petersburg - Sarasota, Florida WTOG 44 2006

Former owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Years owned Current ownership status
Norfolk, Virginia - Hampton Roads WGNT 27 2006–2010 CW affiliate owned by E. W. Scripps Company
Providence, Rhode Island WLWC 28 2006–2007 Court TV affiliate owned by Inyo Broadcast Holdings (CW programming rights transferred to WNAC-DT2 in 2016 spectrum auction)
West Palm Beach, Florida WTVX 34 2006–2007 CW affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group

Estrella TV

Current owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Owned since
Chicago, Illinois WESV-LD 40 2010
Denver, Colorado KETD 53 2010
Houston, Texas KZJL 61 2009
Key West - Miami - Fort Lauderdale, Florida WGEN-TV 8 2018
Los Angeles, California KRCA 62 2009
Phoenix, Arizona KVPA-LD 42 2009
Port Jervis - New York City, New York WASA-LD 24 2012
Salt Lake City, Utah KPNZ 24 2009
San Diego, California KSDX-LD 29 2009

Former owned-and-operated station

City of Licence/Market Station Years Owned Current ownership status
Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas KMPX 29 2009-2020 Estrella TV affiliate owned by Tegna, Inc.


Current owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Owned since
Atlanta, Georgia WAGA-TV 5 1997
Austin, Texas KTBC 7 1997
Chicago, Illinois WFLD 32 1986
Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas KDFW-TV 4 1997
Detroit, Michigan WJBK 2 1997
Houston, Texas KRIV 26 1986
Los Angeles, California KTTV 11 1986
Milwaukee, Wisconsin WITI 6
  • 1997–2008
  • 2020
Minneapolis - Saint Paul, Minnesota KMSP-TV 9 2001
New York City, New York WNYW 5 1986
Ocala-Gainesville, Florida WOGX 51
(semi-satellite of WOFL, Orlando, FL)
Oakland - San Francisco - San Jose, California KTVU 2 2014
Orlando - Daytona Beach - Melbourne, Florida WOFL 35 2002
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania WTXF-TV 29 1995
Phoenix, Arizona KSAZ-TV 10 1997
Tacoma - Seattle, Washington KCPQ 13 2020
Tampa - St. Petersburg - Sarasota, Florida WTVT 13 1997
Washington, D.C. WTTG 5 1986

Former owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Years owned Current ownership status
Atlanta, Georgia WATL 36 1993–1994 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Tegna, Inc.
Belmont - Charlotte, North Carolina WJZY 46 2013–2020 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Birmingham, Alabama WBRC 6 1996–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Gray Television
Boston, Massachusetts WFXT 25 1987–1991
Fox affiliate owned by Cox Media Group
Cleveland, Ohio WJW 8 1997–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas KDAF 33 1986–1995 CW affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Denver, Colorado KDVR 31 1995–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Greensboro - High Point -
Winston-Salem, North Carolina
WGHP 8 1996–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Kansas City, Missouri WDAF-TV 4 1997–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Memphis, Tennessee WHBQ-TV 13 1995-2014 Fox affiliate owned by Cox Media Group
Minneapolis - St. Paul, Minnesota WFTC 29 2001–2002 Merged into duopoly with, and affiliation transferred to, KMSP;
MyNetworkTV O&O owned by Fox Television Stations
Portland, Oregon KPTV 12 2001–2002 Fox affiliate owned by Gray Television
Salt Lake City, Utah KSTU 13 1990–2008 Fox affiliate owned by E. W. Scripps Company
St. Louis, Missouri KTVI 2 1997–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group

Ion Television

Note: Some stations were owned by Ion Media Networks under its former name Paxson Communications prior to the 1998 launch of Ion Television as Pax TV.

Current owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Owned since
Akron - Cleveland, Ohio WVPX-TV 23 1998
Amsterdam - Albany - Schenectady - Troy, New York WYPX-TV 55 1998
Ann Arbor - Detroit, Michigan WPXD-TV 31 1998
Antigo - Wausau - Rhinelander, Wisconsin WTPX-TV 46 2001
Arlington - Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas KPXD-TV 68 1998
Batavia - Buffalo - Rochester, New York WPXJ-TV 51 1999
Battle Creek - Grand Rapids - Kalamazoo - Lansing, Michigan WZPX-TV 43 1998
Bellevue - Seattle - Tacoma, Washington KWPX-TV 33 1998
Block Island - Providence, Rhode Island -
New Bedford, Massachusetts
WPXQ-TV 69 1998
Bloomington - Indianapolis, Indiana WIPX-TV 63 1998
Boise, Idaho KTRV-TV 12 2016
Boston, Massachusetts WBPX-TV 68 1999
Bradenton - Tampa - Saint Petersburg, Florida WXPX-TV 66 1998
Brunswick, Georgia - Jacksonville, Florida WPXC-TV 21 2000
Burlington - Greensboro -
High Point-Winston-Salem, North Carolina
WGPX-TV 16 1998
Cedar Rapids - Waterloo - Iowa City - Dubuque, Iowa KPXR-TV 48 1998
Charleston - Huntington, West Virginia WLPX-TV 29 1998
Chicago, Illinois WCPX-TV 38 1998
Columbia, South Carolina WZRB 47[n1 3] 2014
Concord, New Hampshire WPXG-TV 21
(satellite of WBPX-TV, Boston, MA)
Cookeville - Nashville, Tennessee WNPX-TV 28 1998
Conroe - Houston, Texas KPXB-TV 49 1998
Denver, Colorado KPXC-TV 59 1998
East St. Louis, Illinois - St. Louis, Missouri WRBU 46 2014
Fayetteville, North Carolina WFPX-TV 62
(satellite of WRPX-TV, Rocky Mount, NC)
Gadsden - Birmingham, Alabama WPXH-TV 44 1999
Greenville - New Bern - Washington, North Carolina WEPX-TV 38 1998
Jacksonville, North Carolina WPXU-TV 35
(satellite of WEPX-TV, Greenville, NC)
Jellico - Knoxville, Tennessee WPXK-TV 54 1998
Kaneohe - Honolulu, Hawaii KPXO-TV 66 1998
Kansas City, Missouri KPXE-TV 50 1998
Kenosha - Milwaukee, Wisconsin WPXE-TV 55 1998
Lake Worth - West Palm Beach - Fort Pierce, Florida WPXP-TV 67 1998
Lewiston - Portland, Maine WIPL 35 2018
Manassas, Virginia - Washington, D.C. WPXW-TV 66 1998
Martinsburg, West Virginia WWPX-TV 60
(satellite of WPXW-TV, Manassas, VA)
Melbourne - Orlando - Daytona Beach, Florida WOPX-TV 56 1998
Memphis, Tennessee WPXX-TV 50[n1 4] 1998
Miami, Florida WPXM-TV 35 1998
Morehead - Lexington, Kentucky WUPX-TV 67 2001
New London - Hartford - New Haven, Connecticut WHPX-TV 26 1998
New Orleans, Louisiana WPXL-TV 49 1998
New York City, New York WPXN-TV 31 1998
Newton - Des Moines - Ames, Iowa KFPX-TV 39 1998
Norfolk - Portsmouth - Newport News, Virginia WPXV-TV 49 1998
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma KOPX-TV 62 1998
Okmulgee - Tulsa, Oklahoma KTPX-TV 44 1998
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania WINP-TV 16 2011
Portland - Salem, Oregon KPXG-TV 22 1998
Provo - Salt Lake City, Utah KUPX-TV 16 1998
Roanoke, Virginia WPXR-TV 38 1998
Rocky Mount - Raleigh - Durham, North Carolina WRPX-TV 47 1998
Rome - Atlanta, Georgia WPXA-TV 14 1998
Sacramento - Stockton - Modesto, California KSPX-TV 29 1998
Saint Cloud - Minneapolis - Saint Paul, Minnesota KPXM-TV 41 1998
San Bernardino - Los Angeles, California KPXN-TV 30 1998
San Jose - San Francisco - Oakland, California KKPX-TV 65 1998
Spokane, Washington KGPX-TV 34 1999
Syracuse, New York WSPX-TV 56 1998
Tolleson - Phoenix, Arizona KPPX-TV 51 1999
Uvalde - San Antonio, Texas KPXL-TV 26 1999
Vineyard Haven, Massachusetts WDPX-TV 58
(satellite of WBPX-TV, Boston, MA)
Wilkes-Barre - Scranton, Pennsylvania WQPX-TV 64 1998
Wilmington, Delaware - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania WPPX-TV 61 1998

Former owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Years owned Current ownership status
Albuquerque, New Mexico KAPX 14 1999–2003 UniMás affiliate, KTFQ-TV owned by Univision Communications
(Operated through an SSA by Entravision Communications)
Champaign - Springfield - Decatur, Illinois WPXU 23 1998–1999 CW affiliate, WBUI, owned by GOCOM Media, LLC
(Operated through an SSA by Sinclair Broadcast Group)
Mount Vernon, Illinois - St. Louis, Missouri -
Paducah, Kentucky
WPXS 13 1998–2005 Daystar owned-and-operated station
Porterville - Fresno, California KPXF 61 1998–2003 UniMás O&O, KTFF-DT, owned by Univision Communications
Minden - Shreveport, Louisiana KPXJ 21[n1 5] 1998–2003 CW affiliate owned by KTBS, LLC
Springfield - Dayton, Ohio WDPX 26[n1 6] 1998–1999 CW affiliate, WBDT, owned by Vaughan Media
(Operated through an SSA by Nexstar Media Group)
Suring - Green Bay - Appleton, Wisconsin WPXG 14 1998–1999 CW affiliate, WCWF, owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group
Waterville - Portland, Maine WMPX-TV 23 1999–2003 Fox affiliate, WPFO, owned by Corporate Media Consultants Group
(Operated through an SSA by Sinclair Broadcast Group)


Current owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Owned since
Bemidji, Minnesota KFTC 26
(satellite of WFTC, Minneapolis, MN)
Chicago, Illinois - Gary, Indiana WPWR-TV 50 2006
Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas KDFI-TV 27 2006
Houston, Texas KTXH 20 2006
Los Angeles, California KCOP-TV 13 2006
Minneapolis - St. Paul WFTC 29 2006
Orlando - Daytona Beach, Florida WRBW 65 2006
Phoenix, Arizona KUTP 45 2006
Secaucus, New Jersey - New York City, New York WWOR-TV 9 2006
Tacoma - Seattle, Washington KZJO 22 2020
Washington, D.C. WDCA 20 2006

Former owned-and-operated stations

Market Station Years owned Current ownership status
Baltimore, Maryland WUTB 24 2006–2013 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Deerfield Media
(Operated through an SSA by Sinclair Broadcast Group)
Rock Hill, South Carolina - Charlotte, North Carolina WMYT-TV 55 2013–2020 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group


Current owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Owned since
Boston, Massachusetts WBTS-CD 15[n1 7] 2018
Chicago, Illinois WMAQ-TV 5 1948
Fort Worth - Dallas, Texas KXAS-TV 5[n1 8] 1997
New Britain - Hartford-New Haven, Connecticut WVIT 30 1956–1959, 1997–
Los Angeles, California KNBC 4 1949
Miami-Fort Lauderdale, Florida WTVJ 6 1989
New York City, New York WNBC 4 1941
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania WCAU 10 1995
San Diego, California KNSD 39[n1 8] 1996
San Jose - San Francisco - Oakland, California KNTV 11 2002
San Juan, Puerto Rico WKAQ-TV3 2.3
(repeater of WNBC)
Washington, D.C. WRC-TV 4 1947

Former owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Years owned Current ownership status
Birmingham, Alabama WVTM-TV 13 1996–2006 NBC affiliate owned by Hearst Television
Buffalo, New York WBUF 17 1955–1958 PBS member station, WNED, owned by Western New York Public Broadcasting Association
Cleveland, Ohio WKYC-TV 3 1947–1955
1965–1990[n1 9]
NBC affiliate owned by Tegna, Inc.
Columbus, Ohio WCMH 4 1996–2006 NBC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Denver, Colorado KCNC-TV 4 1986–1995 CBS O&O owned by ViacomCBS
Goldsboro - Raleigh - Durham -
Fayetteville, North Carolina
WNCN 17 1996–2006 CBS affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania KYW-TV 3 1955–1965 CBS O&O owned by ViacomCBS
Providence, Rhode Island WJAR-TV 10 1996–2006 NBC affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group
Salt Lake City, Utah KUTV 2 1994–1995 CBS affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group


Current owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Owned since
Manchester, New Hampshire - Boston, Massachusetts WNEU 60 2002
Chicago, Illinois WSNS-TV 44[n1 10] 1996
Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas KXTX-TV 39 2001
Denver, Colorado KDEN-TV 25 2006
Douglas, Arizona K28EY 28
(repeater of KHRR)
El Paso, Texas KTDO 48 2018
Fresno, California KNSO 51[n1 11] 2003
Galveston - Houston, Texas KTMD 47 1997
Las Vegas KBLR 39 2005
Linden, New Jersey - New York City, New York WNJU 47 1984
Los Angeles, California KVEA 52 1985
Fort Lauderdale - Miami - West Palm Beach, Florida WSCV 51 1987
Orlando, Florida WTMO 31 2018
Phoenix, Arizona KTAZ 39 2002
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania WWSI 62 2013
Providence, Rhode Island WYCN-LD 8
  • 1995–2016
  • 2019
Rio Grande City - Harlingen - Weslaco - Brownsville - McAllen, Texas KTLM 40 2013
Salinas - Monterey, California K15CU-D 15
(repeater of KNTV)
Salt Lake City, Utah KEJT-CD 50 N/A
San Antonio, Texas KVDA 60 1989
San Diego, California KUAN-LD 20 2017
San Jose - San Francisco - Oakland, California KSTS 48 1984
San Juan, Puerto Rico WKAQ-TV 2 1987
Tampa, Florida WRMD-CD 49 2018
Tucson, Arizona KHRR 40 2002
Washington, D.C. WZDC 44 2018

Former owned-and-operated station

Trinity Broadcasting Network


1) Stations indicated by two plus signs ("++") are stations that were signed on by TBN or a TBN subsidiary.
2) Stations indicated by two asterisks ("**") represent a station owned by Community Educational Television, a TBN subsidiary.

Current owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Owned since
Albuquerque, New Mexico KNAT-TV 23 1986
Bartlesville - Tulsa, Oklahoma KDOR-TV 17 1987
Beaumont, Texas KITU-TV 34**++ 1986
Burlington, New Jersey - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania WGTW-TV 48 2004
Cocoa - Orlando, Florida WHLV-TV 51 2006
Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas KDTX-TV 58++ 1987
Dalton, Georgia - Chattanooga, Tennessee WELF-TV 23 1994
Fort Pierce - West Palm Beach, Florida WTCE-TV 21**++ 1990
Gadsden - Birmingham, Alabama WTJP-TV 60++ 1986
Galesburg - Moline, Illinois - Davenport, Iowa WMWC-TV 53 2012
Greeley - Denver, Colorado KPJR-TV 38 2009
Harlingen, Texas KLUJ-TV 44**++ 1986
Hendersonville - Nashville, Tennessee WPGD-TV 50++ 1992
Holly Springs, Mississippi - Memphis, Tennessee WBUY-TV 40 2001
Honolulu, Hawaii KAAH-TV 26 1996
Houston, Texas KETH-TV 14**++ 1987
Jacksonville, Florida WJEB-TV 59**++ 1991
La Salle - Chicago, Illinois WWTO-TV 35++ 1986
Magee - Jackson, Mississippi WRBJ-TV 34 2013
Mayville - Milwaukee, Wisconsin WWRS-TV 34 1997
Miami - Fort Lauderdale, Florida WHFT-TV 45 1980
Mobile, Alabama WMPV-TV 20++ 1986
Montgomery, Alabama WMCF-TV 45++ 1986
Monroe - Atlanta, Georgia WHSG-TV 63 1998
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma KTBO-TV 14++ 1981
Phoenix, Arizona KPAZ-TV 21 1977
Portland, Oregon KNMT 24 1989
Poughkeepsie - New York City, New York WTBY-TV 54 1983
St. Joseph - Kansas City, Missouri KTAJ-TV 16 1986
San Antonio, Texas KHCE-TV 23**++ 1989
Santa Ana - Los Angeles, California KTBN-TV 40 1974
Tacoma - Seattle, Washington KTBW-TV 20 1984
Virginia Beach, Virginia WTPC-TV 21 2006

Former owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Years owned
Canton - Cleveland, Ohio WDLI-TV 17 1986–2018
Newark - Columbus, Ohio WSFJ-TV 51 2007–2018
Richmond, Indiana - Dayton - Cincinnati, Ohio WKOI-TV 43 1982–2018
Bloomington - Indianapolis, Indiana WCLJ-TV 42 1987–2018

Until 2018, TBN never sold any of its full-power television stations (either one it owns outright or through its Community Educational Television subsidiary), though several translator stations have been sold off since the digital transition to other parties for either spectrum speculation, to become translators of other commercial stations, or in the case of W41BN in Dothan, Alabama, to become an affiliate of one of the major broadcast networks; in that case W41BN is now WRGX-LD, the market's NBC affiliate under the ownership of Gray Television. Several other translator stations have been taken off-the-air completely as TBN's distribution has become concentrated on pay television and IPTV distribution, due to the prohibitive costs of upgrading the entire network's translator system to digital.

In September 2018, TBN completed the sale of full-power station WDLI-TV to Ion Media, with whom it had entered into a channel sharing agreement in March 2018 involving Ion's WVPX-TV; Ion chose to exploit WDLI-TV's full-market cable and satellite coverage for carriage of Ion Life/Plus in Cleveland, formerly carried on WVPX-DT3. The same transaction resulted in the sale of WKOI-TV to Ion Media which allowed dual-market carriage of Ion Television in Dayton and Cincinnati after TBN entered into a channel sharing agreement with WDTN, WSFJ-TV's channel share with Daystar's WCLL-CD resulted in full-market coverage of Ion Plus in the Columbus market, and the same arrangement with Ion's WIPX-TV resulted in WCLJ becoming a primary Ion Plus station for the Indianapolis market.


Current owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Owned since
Albuquerque, New Mexico KTFQ-TV 14[n1 12] 2003
Atlanta, Georgia WUVG-DT2 34.2 2002
Austin, Texas KTFO-CD 31 2002
Bakersfield, California KBTF-CD 31
[n1 13]
Boston, Massachusetts WUTF-DT 66[n1 12] 2002
Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas KSTR-DT 49 2002
Denver, Colorado KTFD-DT 14 2005
Douglas, Arizona KFTU-CD 18
(repeater of KFTU-DT)
Fresno, California KTFF-DT 61 2003
Houston-Alvin, Texas KFTH-DT 67 2002
Joliet - Chicago, Illinois WXFT-DT 60 2002
Los Angeles, California KFTR-DT 46 2002
Miami - Fort Lauderdale, Florida WAMI-DT 69 2002
Modesto - Sacramento - Stockton, California KTFK-DT 64 2003
Newark - New York City, New York WFUT-DT 68 2002
Orlando - Daytona Beach - Melbourne, Florida WOTF-DT 43[n1 10] 2002
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania WFPA-CD 65[n1 14] 2002
Raleigh - Durham, North Carolina WTNC-LD 26 N/A
Phoenix - Flagstaff, Arizona KFPH-DT 13 2002
San Antonio - Blanco, Texas KNIC-DT 17[n1 15] 2006
San Francisco - Oakland - San Jose, California KFSF-DT 66 2002
San Juan - Caguas, Puerto Rico WLII-DT 11[n1 16] 2005
Smithtown - New York City, New York WFTY-DT 67
(satellite of WFUT-DT)
Tucson, Arizona KFTU-DT 3 2002
Tampa - St. Petersburg, Florida WFTT-DT 62 2002


Current owned-and-operated stations

City of license/Market Station Owned since
Atlanta, Georgia WUVG-DT 34 2002
Austin, Texas KAKW-DT 62 2002
Bakersfield, California KABE-CD 39[n1 17] N/A
Cleveland, Ohio WQHS-DT 61 2002
Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas KUVN-DT 23 1988[n1 18]
Fayetteville - Raleigh - Durham, North Carolina WUVC-DT 40 2003
Fresno - Visalia, California KFTV-DT 21 1972
Houston, Texas KXLN-DT 45 1993
Joliet - Chicago, Illinois WGBO-DT 66 1995
Los Angeles, California KMEX-DT 34 1962
Miami - Fort Lauderdale -
West Palm Beach, Florida
WLTV-DT 23 1971
Modesto - Sacramento, California KUVS-DT 19 1990s[specify]
Paterson, New Jersey - New York City, New York WXTV-DT 41 1970
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania WUVP-DT 65 2002
Phoenix, Arizona KTVW-DT 33 1979
Ponce, Puerto Rico WSUR-TV 9
(satellite of WLII-DT)[n1 18]
Salt Lake City, Utah KUTH-DT 32 2008
San Antonio, Texas KWEX-DT 41 1962
San Francisco, California KDTV-DT 14 1992
San Juan, Puerto Rico WLII-DT 11[n1 16] 2005
Tucson, Arizona KUVE-DT 46 2002
Washington, D.C. WFDC-DT 14[n1 10] 2002[n1 19]

O&O stations of defunct major television networks in the United States

DuMont Television Network

City of license/Market Station Years owned Current ownership status
New York, New York WNYW 5 1946–1956 Fox O&O owned by Fox Television Stations
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania KDKA-TV 2 1949–1954 CBS O&O owned by CBS Television Stations
Washington, D.C. WTTG 5 1946–1956 Fox O&O owned by Fox Television Stations


UPN was co-founded by United Television / Chris-Craft Television and Paramount Pictures, and launched on January 16, 1995.
City of license/Market Station Years owned Current ownership status
Atlanta, Georgia WUPA 69 1995–2006 CW O&O owned by ViacomCBS
Baltimore, Maryland WUTB 24 1998–2000 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Deerfield Media
(Operated through an SSA by Sinclair Broadcast Group)
Boston, Massachusetts WSBK-TV 38 1995–2006 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by ViacomCBS
Columbus, Ohio WWHO 53 1995–2005 CW affiliate owned by Manhan Media
(Operated through an SSA by Sinclair Broadcast Group)
Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas KTXA 21 1995–2000 Independent station owned by ViacomCBS
Houston, Texas KTXH 20 1995–2000 MyNetworkTV O&O owned by Fox Television Stations
Indianapolis, Indiana WNDY-TV 23 1999–2006 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Circle City Broadcasting
Los Angeles, California KCOP-TV 13 1995–2000 MyNetworkTV O&O owned by Fox Television Stations
Miami, Florida WBFS-TV 33 1995–2006 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by ViacomCBS
Minneapolis - St. Paul, Minnesota KMSP-TV 9 1995-2001 Fox O&O owned by Fox Television Stations
New Orleans - Slidell, Louisiana WUPL 54 1995–2006 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Tegna, Inc.
Norfolk, Virginia WGNT 27 1995–2006 CW affiliate owned by E. W. Scripps Company
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma KPSG 43 1998–2005 Independent station, KAUT-TV, owned by Nexstar Media Group
Orlando, Florida WRBW 65 1996–2000 MyNetworkTV O&O owned by Fox Television Stations
Phoenix, Arizona KUTP 45 1995–2000 MyNetworkTV O&O owned by Fox Television Stations
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania WPSG 57 1995–2006 CW O&O owned by ViacomCBS
Pittsburgh - Jeannette, Pennsylvania WNPA-TV 19 1998–2006 CW O&O, WPCW, owned by ViacomCBS
Portland, Oregon KPTV 12 1995–2000 Fox affiliate owned by the Gray Television
Providence, Rhode Island WLWC 28 1997–2006 Ion Plus affiliate owned by OTA Broadcasting
Sacramento, California KMAX-TV 31[n1 20] 1998–2006 CW O&O owned by ViacomCBS
San Antonio, Texas KRRT 35 1995–1996 CW affiliate, KMYS, owned by Deerfield Media
(Operated through an SSA by Sinclair Broadcast Group)
San Francisco, California KBHK-TV 44 1995–2006 CW O&O, KBCW, owned by ViacomCBS
Seattle - Tacoma, Washington KSTW 11 1997–2006 CW O&O owned by ViacomCBS
Secaucus, New Jersey -
New York City, New York
WWOR-TV 9 1995–2000 MyNetworkTV O&O owned by Fox Television Stations
Washington, D.C. WDCA 20 1995–2000 MyNetworkTV O&O owned by Fox Television Stations
West Palm Beach, Florida WTVX 34 1997–2006 CW affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group
Wichita, Kansas KMTW 36 2000–2001 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Mercury Broadcasting Company
(Operated through an LMA by Sinclair Broadcast Group)


  1. ^ Station was co-owned by CBS in a joint venture with the Los Angeles Times.
  2. ^ Station was co-owned by CBS in a joint venture with The Washington Post.
  3. ^ WZRB carried a secondary affiliation with The CW from February to March 2014, shortly after becoming an Ion O&O.
  4. ^ WPXX-TV carried a primary affiliation with MyNetworkTV from 2006 to 2009.
  5. ^ KPXJ carried a secondary affiliation with Ion predecessor Pax TV until 2004, after becoming a UPN affiliate.
  6. ^ WBDT carried a secondary affiliation with Ion predecessor Pax TV until 2004, after becoming a WB affiliate.
  7. ^ WBTS-CD is licensed to Nashua, New Hampshire, but channel shares with PBS member station WGBX-TV in Needham, Massachusetts and is effectively a full-power simulcast for the entire market.
  8. ^ a b This station was co-owned with LIN TV Corporation (which held 24% minority interest in both stations) from 1997 to 2013, under the limited partnership Station Venture Operations.
  9. ^ NBC sold controlling interest in WKYC to Multimedia Inc. in 1990. The network retained 49% ownership of the station, but since Multimedia owned 51% interest, WKYC technically lost its status as an NBC O&O as a result of the transaction.
  10. ^ a b c This station was jointly owned by Ensaness Communications from 1996 to 2003.
  11. ^ NBCUniversal holds the license to this station, although it is operated by ZGS Communications.
  12. ^ a b Univision Communications holds the license to this station, though it is operated by Entravision Communications.
  13. ^ KBTF-CD's signal is rebroadcast on the third digital subchannel of co-owned Univision outlet KUVI-DT (virtual channel 45.3, digital channel 45).
  14. ^ WFPA-CD's signal is rebroadcast on the second digital subchannel of co-owned Univision outlet WUVP-DT (virtual channel 65.2, digital channel 29).
  15. ^ KNIC-DT is the only UniMás station to be built and signed on by Univision Communications.
  16. ^ a b WLII was operated by Univision Communications under a local marketing agreement with Raycom Media from 2002 to 2005, when Univision purchased the station.
  17. ^ KABE's signal is repeated on second digital subchannel of co-owned MyNetworkTV affiliate KUVI-DT (digital subchannel 45.2, UHF digital channel 45).
  18. ^ a b Univision was carried as a secondary affiliation prior to Univision Communications' purchase of the station.
  19. ^ Univision was formerly affiliated with co-owned WMDO-CA from 2002 to 2005, WFDC was affiliated with Telefutura during that timeframe.
  20. ^ KMAX-TV was an owned-and-operated station of The WB from 1995 to 1998.


  1. ^ a b "FCC's Review of the Broadcast Ownership Rules". Retrieved May 28, 2009.
  2. ^ David Weinstein (2004). The Forgotten Network: DuMont and the Birth of American Television. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University. pp. 24–25. ISBN 9781592132454.
  3. ^ "The UHF-TV Morgue". WebCitation. Archived from the original on October 20, 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  4. ^ "The UHF-TV Morgue: WBUF-TV, Channel 17, Buffalo, NY". WebCitation. Archived from the original on October 20, 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  5. ^ "The UHF-TV Morgue: WHCT-TV, Channel 18, Hartford, Connecticut". WebCitation. Archived from the original on October 19, 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  6. ^ "Fox Gains 12 Stations in New World Deal". Chicago Sun-Times. May 23, 1994. Archived from the original on October 11, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  7. ^ Brian Lowry (July 18, 1996). "New World Vision : Murdoch's News Corp. to Buy Broadcast Group". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
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  12. ^ "KCAL's Owner Outbids NBC for S.F.'s Leading TV Station". Los Angeles Times. November 17, 1999. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  13. ^ "NBC Tells KRON Bidders Who's Boss". San Francisco Chronicle. October 27, 1999. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
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  15. ^ Tim Goodman (February 14, 2000). "KNTV in, KRON out as NBC affiliate". San Francisco Examiner. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  16. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: Disney to Sell Two Stations". Broadcasting & Cable. November 3, 2010.
  17. ^ "Exclusive: New GMs For Former ABC O&Os in Flint, Toledo". Broadcasting & Cable. March 31, 2011.
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  19. ^ "Gray TV finalizes Raycom deal". WTOK-TV. January 2, 2019. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  20. ^ a b Robert Channick (December 27, 2013). "Tribune closes $2.7B Local TV acquisition". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 27, 2013.
  21. ^ Ben Munson (May 9, 2018). "Fox buying 7 Sinclair stations for $910M". Fierce Cable. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  22. ^ "Tribune Terminates $3.9 Billion Sinclair Merger, Sues Broadcast Rival". The Wall Street Journal. News Corp. August 9, 2018. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
  23. ^ Charles Riley (August 9, 2018). "Tribune calls off $3.9 billion Sinclair media deal". CNNMoney. Turner Broadcasting System/WarnerMedia.
  24. ^ "Fox And Cox To Swap 4 Stations In 3 Markets". TVNewsCheck. June 24, 2014.
  25. ^ "Fox Acquires San Francisco TV Stations in Swap with Cox". Variety. June 25, 2014.
  26. ^ John Eggerton (June 24, 2014). "Fox, Cox Swap Stations". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
  27. ^ Michael Malone (October 8, 2014). "Cox, Fox Swap Closes in Boston, Bay Area, Memphis". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
  28. ^ "Acquisition of Tribune Media Company" (PDF). Nexstar Media Group. December 3, 2018.
  29. ^ Mark K. Miller (December 3, 2018). "Nexstar Buying Tribune Media For $6.4 Billion". TVNewsCheck. NewsCheck Media.
  30. ^ Peter White; Dade Hayes (December 3, 2018). "Nexstar Confirms $4.1B Tribune Media Acquisition To Become Leading Local TV Station Owner". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Media Corporation.
  31. ^ Gerry Smith; Nabila Ahmed; Eric Newcomer (December 3, 2018). "Nexstar to buy WGN owner Tribune Media for $4.1 billion". Chicago Tribune. Tribune Publishing. Bloomberg News.
  32. ^ Arjun Panchadar; Sonam Rai (December 3, 2018). "Nexstar to buy Tribune Media for $4.1 billion". Reuters.
  33. ^ Jon Lafayette (December 3, 2018). "Nexstar Announces Deal to Buy Tribune for $6.4B". Broadcasting & Cable. NewBay Media.
  34. ^ Adam Jacobson (December 3, 2018). "It's Official: Nexstar Takes Tribune In Billion-Dollar Stock Deal". Radio-Television Business Report. Streamline-RBR, Inc.
  35. ^ Harry A. Jessell; Mark K. Miller (December 3, 2018). "Nexstar To Spin Off $1B In Stations". TVNewsCheck. NewsCheck Media.
  36. ^ "Nexstar Media Group Enters into Definitive Agreement to Acquire Tribune Media Company for $6.4 Billion in Accretive Transaction Creating the Nation's Largest Local Television Broadcaster and Local Media Company". Nexstar Media Group. December 3, 2018. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
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  38. ^ Cynthia Littleton (December 3, 2018). "Tribune Media to Be Acquired by Nexstar Media Group". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  39. ^ "Time Warner TV Network to Cover 40% of Nation". The Buffalo News. HighBeam Research. November 2, 1993. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
  40. ^ "UPN and WB to Combine, Forming New TV Network". The New York Times. January 24, 2006.
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External links