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Temporal range: late Oligocene to ?middle Miocene
Oxydactylus longipes fm.jpg
Skeleton of Oxydactylus longipes in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Camelidae
Tribe: Camelini
Genus: Oxydactylus

O. lacota
O. longipes
O. longirostris
O. wyomingensis

Oxydactylus is an extinct terrestrial herbivorous genus of the tribe Camelini, family Camelidae, endemic to North America Oligocene through the Middle Miocene (30.8–13.6 mya) and in existence for approximately 17.2 million years.[1]


Oxydactylus is from the Ancient Greek οξύς (oxys, "sharp")and δάκτυλος (daktylos, "finger").

Oxydactylus was named by Peterson in 1904. Its type is Oxydactylus longipes. It was assigned to Camelidae by Peterson (1904) and Carroll (1988).[2]

Species include O. benedentatus (syn. Procamelus concerptus), O. cameloides, O. campestris, O. lacota, O. longipes (type species), O. longirostris, O. lulli, O. wyomingensis.


O. longipes restoration

They had very long legs and necks, and were probably adapted to eating high vegetation, much like modern giraffes. Unlike modern camelids, they had hooves, rather than tough sole-pads and splayed toes.[3]

Four specimens were examined by M. Mendoza, C. M. Janis, and P. Palmqvist for estimated body mass.[4]

  • Specimen 1: 183.3 kg (404.1 lb)
  • Specimen 2: 115.9 kg (255.5 lb)
  • Specimen 3: 116.5 kg (256.8 lb)
  • Specimen 4: 126.3 kg (278.4 lb)


  1. ^ Paleobiology Database: Oxydactylus basic info.
  2. ^ R. L. Carroll. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York 1-698
  3. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 277. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 
  4. ^ M. Mendoza, C. M. Janis, and P. Palmqvist. 2006. Estimating the body mass of extinct ungulates: a study on the use of multiple regression. Journal of Zoology