An oxygenase is any enzyme that oxidizes a substrate by transferring the oxygen from molecular oxygen O2 (as in air) to it. The oxygenases form a class of oxidoreductases; their EC number is EC 1.13 or EC 1.14.
Oxygenases were discovered in 1955 simultaneously by two groups, Osamu Hayaishi from Japan and Howard S. Mason from the US. Hayaishi was awarded the 1986 Wolf Prize in Medicine "for the discovery of the oxygenase enzymes and elucidation of their structure and biological importance."
There are two types of oxygenases:
- Monooxygenases, or mixed function oxidase, transfer one oxygen atom to the substrate, and reduce the other oxygen atom to water.
- Dioxygenases, or oxygen transferases, incorporate both atoms of molecular oxygen (O2) into the product(s) of the reaction.
Among the most important monooxygenases are the cytochrome P450 oxidases, responsible for breaking down numerous chemicals in the body.
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- "The Medicine Prize Committee unanimously decided that the Wolf Prize in Medicine for 1986 be awarded to Osamu Hayaishi". Wolf Foundation. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- SW, Ryter; J, Alam (April 2006). "Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from basic science to therapeutic applications". Physiol Rev. Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. 86: 583–650. doi:10.1152/physrev.00011.2005. PMID 16601269.
- Bugg TDH (2003). "Dioxygenase enzymes: catalytic mechanisms and chemical models". Tetrahedron. 59 (36): 7075–7101. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(03)00944-X.
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