Oymyakon

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Oymyakon
Оймякон
Other transcription(s)
 • YakutӨймөкөөн
Oymyakon - 190228 DSC 5642.jpg
Location of Oymyakon
Oymyakon is located in Russia
Oymyakon
Oymyakon
Location of Oymyakon
Oymyakon is located in Sakha Republic
Oymyakon
Oymyakon
Oymyakon (Sakha Republic)
Coordinates: 63°27′39″N 142°47′09″E / 63.46083°N 142.78583°E / 63.46083; 142.78583Coordinates: 63°27′39″N 142°47′09″E / 63.46083°N 142.78583°E / 63.46083; 142.78583
CountryRussia
Federal subjectSakha Republic
Administrative districtOymyakonsky District
Elevation
745 m (2,444 ft)
Population
 • Total462
 • Estimate 
(February 5, 2018)[Videos 1]
500–900
 • Municipal districtOymyakonsky Municipal District
Time zoneUTC+10 (MSK+7 Edit this on Wikidata[2])
Postal code(s)[3]
678752
Dialing code(s)+7 41154
OKTMO ID98639405101

Oymyakon[a] is a rural locality (a selo) in Oymyakonsky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located in the Yana-Oymyakon Highlands, along the Indigirka River, 30 km (19 mi) northwest of Tomtor on the Kolyma Highway. By winter average temperatures, it is the coldest permanently inhabited settlement on Earth.[4][5]

Etymology[edit]

It is named after the Oymyakon River, whose name reportedly comes from the Even word kheium, meaning "unfrozen patch of water; place where fish spend the winter".[6] However, another source states that the Even word heyum (hэjум, хэюм; kheium may be a misspelling), which means "frozen lake", may be where it gets its name.[7]

Geography[edit]

Oymyakon has two main valleys beside it. These valleys trap wind inside the town and create a colder climate.[8] The temperatures here are extremely cold for most of the year, and it snows frequently in spring and autumn, but rarely in summer and winter, due to the Siberian High in winter and temperatures are commonly above 0 °C (32 °F) in summer. Schools are closed if it is colder than −55 °C (−67 °F).[9]

History[edit]

During World War II, an airfield was built in the district of Aeroport, for the Alaska-Siberian (ALSIB) air route, used to ferry American Lend-Lease aircraft to the Eastern Front.[10]

Oymyakon is located near the historic Road of Bones.[11]

Over the last few decades, the population of Oymyakon has shrunk significantly. The village had a peak population of roughly 2,500 inhabitants, but that number has dwindled to fewer than 900 in 2018.[Videos 1]

Local economy is mostly fur trading and ice fishing.[12]

Climate[edit]

Landscape near Oymyakon in February 2013

With an extreme subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfd), Oymyakon is known as one of the places considered the Northern Pole of Cold, the other being the town of Verkhoyansk, located 629 km (391 mi) away by air. The weather station is in a valley between Oymyakon and Tomtor. The station is at 750 m (2,460 ft) above sea level and the surrounding mountains, at 1,100 m (3,600 ft), cause cold air to pool in the valley: in fact, recent studies show that winter temperatures in the area increase with altitude by as much as 10 °C (18 °F).[clarification needed][13] The ground is permanently frozen (continuous permafrost).

There is a monument built around the town square commemorating an unofficial reading in January 1924 of −71.2 °C (−96.2 °F). This was shown on the Australian program 60 Minutes in a 2012 documentary.[14] On 6 February 1933, a temperature of −67.7 °C (−89.9 °F) was recorded at Oymyakon's weather station.[15][16] This was almost the coldest officially recorded temperature in the Northern Hemisphere (Verkhoyansk had recorded −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F) on 5 and 7 February, 1892). Only Antarctica has recorded lower official temperatures (the lowest being −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F), recorded at Vostok Station on 21 July 1983).[17][18] The unofficial record cold temperature is roughly 8°C warmer than the sublimation point of carbon dioxide.

During some years the temperature drops below 0 °C (32 °F) in late September and remains below freezing until mid-April. Oymyakon has never recorded an above-freezing temperature between 26 October and 16 March inclusive.[19] In Oymyakon sometimes the average minimum temperature for December, January, and February falls below −50 °C (−58 °F): in the record coldest month of January 1931 the monthly mean was −54.1 °C (−65.4 °F).[20] Sometimes summer months can also be quite chilly, but in June, July and August the temperature has never dropped below −14 °C (7 °F), while in June and July, the temperature has never dropped below −10 °C (14 °F). Oymyakon and Verkhoyansk are the only two permanently inhabited places in the world that have recorded temperatures below −60 °C (−76 °F) for every day in January.[21][22] By the contrast July is the month where every day has had temperature above 30 °C (86 °F) . Every day of the year has a record low below freezing, with 9 July having the highest record low at −1.5 °C (29.3 °F). In contrast, 4 January has the lowest record high at −27.9 °C (−18.2 °F)

Although winters in Oymyakon are long and extremely cold, summers are mild to warm, sometimes hot, with cool to cold summer nights. The warmest month on record was July 2022 with an average temperature of 19.3 °C (66.7 °F).[23] In June, July and August temperatures over 30 °C (86 °F) are not rare during the day. On 7 July 2022, the warmest night on record was observed, with an overnight minimum of 18.6 °C (65.5 °F).[24][25] On 28 July 2010, Oymyakon recorded a record high temperature of 34.6 °C (94.3 °F),[26] yielding a temperature range of 105.8 °C (190.4 °F). Verkhoyansk, Yakutsk, Delyankir and Fort Vermilion, Canada are the only other known places in the world that have a temperature amplitude higher than 100 °C (180 °F).[citation needed]

The climate is quite dry, but as average monthly temperatures are below freezing for seven months of the year, substantial evaporation occurs only in summer months. Summers are much wetter than winters. Due to its harsh winters, the plant hardiness zone in Oymyakon is between 1a and 1b.

Climate data for Oymyakon (1991–2020, extremes 1891–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −16.6
(2.1)
−12.5
(9.5)
2.0
(35.6)
11.7
(53.1)
26.2
(79.2)
31.6
(88.9)
34.6
(94.3)
32.9
(91.2)
23.7
(74.7)
11.0
(51.8)
−2.1
(28.2)
−6.0
(21.2)
34.6
(94.3)
Average high °C (°F) −42.1
(−43.8)
−35.8
(−32.4)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
9.7
(49.5)
20.0
(68.0)
23.0
(73.4)
18.5
(65.3)
9.1
(48.4)
−8.3
(17.1)
−30.2
(−22.4)
−41.9
(−43.4)
−8.4
(16.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −45.7
(−50.3)
−42.2
(−44.0)
−30.2
(−22.4)
−12.7
(9.1)
3.5
(38.3)
12.7
(54.9)
15.3
(59.5)
10.8
(51.4)
2.5
(36.5)
−13.8
(7.2)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−45.0
(−49.0)
−14.9
(5.2)
Average low °C (°F) −49.3
(−56.7)
−47.6
(−53.7)
−39.2
(−38.6)
−22.9
(−9.2)
−3.5
(25.7)
4.4
(39.9)
6.9
(44.4)
3.2
(37.8)
−3.3
(26.1)
−19.2
(−2.6)
−38.8
(−37.8)
−48.3
(−54.9)
−21.5
(−6.7)
Record low °C (°F) −65.4
(−85.7)
−67.7
(−89.9)
−60.6
(−77.1)
−46.4
(−51.5)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−9.7
(14.5)
−9.3
(15.3)
−13.2
(8.2)
−25.3
(−13.5)
−47.6
(−53.7)
−58.5
(−73.3)
−62.8
(−81.0)
−67.7
(−89.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 6
(0.2)
7
(0.3)
5
(0.2)
5
(0.2)
15
(0.6)
39
(1.5)
46
(1.8)
38
(1.5)
24
(0.9)
13
(0.5)
13
(0.5)
7
(0.3)
218
(8.6)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 24
(9.4)
28
(11)
30
(12)
24
(9.4)
3
(1.2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
6
(2.4)
15
(5.9)
20
(7.9)
30
(12)
Average rainy days 0 0 0.03 0.4 10 17 17 18 13 1 0 0 76
Average snowy days 23 23 16 10 9 1 0.2 0.3 9 21 23 20 156
Average relative humidity (%) 75 74 72 68 60 59 65 70 73 79 77 74 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 28 118 244 284 282 304 298 236 151 113 58 13 2,129
Source 1: Погода и Климат,[27][28] World Meteorological Organization (February record low)[29]
Source 2: NOAA (sunshine hours 1961–1990)[30]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Russian: Оймяко́н, pronounced [ɐjmʲɪˈkon]; Yakut: Өймөкөөн, Öymököön, IPA: [øjmøˈkøːn]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  2. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  3. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  4. ^ Jennings, Ken (September 10, 2018). "This Is the Coldest Permanently Inhabited Place on Earth". Condé Nast Traveler.
  5. ^ "World's Coldest Village Drops To -80° & The Photos Are Spectacular". InspireMore.com. January 16, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  6. ^ Pospelov, Evgeniy Mikhaylovich (1998). Географические названия мира (in Russian). Moscow. p. 307.
  7. ^ Tsintsius, V. I. (1977), Сравнительный словарь тунгусо-маньчжурских языков : материалы к этимологическому словарю (in Russian), vol. 2, Leningrad: Nauka, p. 361
  8. ^ Bijal P. Trivedi (May 12, 2004). "Life Is a Chilling Challenge in Subzero Siberia". National Geographic Channel.
  9. ^ "Visiting the coldest town in the world - Chilling Out - 60 Minutes Australia". YouTube. June 20, 2018.
  10. ^ Lebedev, Igor (1997). Aviation Lend-Lease to Russia. Nova Publishers. pp. 44–49.
  11. ^ Andrew Higgins (November 22, 2020). "Along Russia's 'Road of Bones,' Relics of Suffering and Despair". The New York Times. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  12. ^ Interesting, Sometimes (July 17, 2011). "The Coldest Inhabited Place on Earth: Oymyakon, Russia". Sometimes Interesting.
  13. ^ "International Glaciological Society (IGS)" (PDF). Igsoc.org. February 13, 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
  14. ^ "Chilling Out – Visiting the Coldest Town in the World". 60 Minutes. June 20, 2018 – via YouTube.
  15. ^ N.A. Stepanova. "On the Lowest Temperatures on Earth" (PDF). Docs.lib.noaa.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
  16. ^ Christopher C. Burt. "The Coldest Places on Earth". Weather Underground. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016.
  17. ^ "World:Lowest Temperature". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on June 16, 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  18. ^ "Global Weather & Climate Extremes". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  19. ^ "Погода и Климат - Климатический монитор: погода в Оймяконе". Pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
  20. ^ "Погода и Климат - Климатический монитор: погода в Оймяконе". Pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved April 24, 2021.
  21. ^ "Погода и Климат - Климатический монитор: погода в Оймяконе". Pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
  22. ^ "Погода и Климат - Климатический монитор: погода в Верхоянске". Pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
  23. ^ "Погода и Климат - Климатический монитор: погода в Оймяконе". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
  24. ^ "24688: Ojmjakon (Russia)". ogimet.com. OGIMET. July 7, 2022. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
  25. ^ "Oymyakon is famous for having the record of the lowest temperature in an inhabited village with -67.7C on 6 February 1933. 89 years later, today 8 July an opposite record was set: its warmest night on record with an overnight minimum of 18.6C (and almost 23 hours were "tropical")". Twitter.com. Retrieved July 18, 2022.
  26. ^ "Погода и Климат - Климатический монитор: погода в Оймяконе". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
  27. ^ "Погода и Климат - Климат Оймякона". Pogodaiklimat.ru. Archived from the original on March 17, 2015. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  28. ^ "Погода в Оймяконе. Температура воздуха и осадки. Февраль 2014 г." Pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
  29. ^ "Asia: Lowest Temperature". WMO. Archived from the original on June 16, 2010. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
  30. ^ "Ojmjakon Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 3, 2021.

Videos[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Visite du village le plus froid du monde". YouTube (in French). Konbini News. February 5, 2018. Retrieved October 27, 2018.

External links[edit]