Pärnu

Coordinates: 58°23′N 24°30′E / 58.383°N 24.500°E / 58.383; 24.500
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pärnu
Pärnu linn
City of Pärnu
City
Pärnu
Pärnu is located in Estonia
Pärnu
Pärnu
Location of Pärnu in Estonia
Pärnu is located in Baltic Sea
Pärnu
Pärnu
Pärnu (Baltic Sea)
Pärnu is located in Europe
Pärnu
Pärnu
Pärnu (Europe)
Coordinates: 58°23′N 24°30′E / 58.383°N 24.500°E / 58.383; 24.500
CountryEstonia
CountyPärnu County
MunicipalityPärnu
Founded1251
Area
 • Total32.22 km2 (12.44 sq mi)
Elevation
10 m (30 ft)
Population
 (2022)[1]
 • Total40,228
 • Rank4th
 • Density1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
Ethnicity (2021)
 • Estonians83.7%
 • Russians10.6%
 • other5.7%
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Vehicle registrationF

Pärnu (Estonian pronunciation: [ˈpærˑnu]) is the fourth largest city in Estonia and third in terms of the ethnic Estonian population. Situated in southwest Estonia, Pärnu is located 128 kilometres (80 mi) south of the Estonian capital, Tallinn, and 176 kilometres (109 mi) west of Estonia's second largest city, Tartu. The city sits off the coast of Pärnu Bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Riga, which is a part of the Baltic Sea. In the city, the Pärnu River drains into the Gulf of Riga.

Pärnu is a popular summer holiday resort town among Estonians with many hotels, restaurants and large beaches. The city is served by Pärnu Airport.

History[edit]

Pärnu in 1554

Pärnu or Old Pärnu (Latin: Perona, German: Pernau, Alt-Pernau, Estonian: Vana-Pärnu), which was founded by the bishop of Ösel–Wiek c. 1251, suffered heavily under pressure of the concurrent town, and was finally destroyed c. 1600. Another town, Embeke (later German: Neu-Pernau, Estonian: Uus-Pärnu) was founded by the Livonian Order, who began building an Ordensburg nearby in 1265. The latter town, then known by the German name of Pernau, was a member of the Hanseatic League and an important ice-free harbor for Livonia. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took control of town between 1560 and 1617; the Poles and Lithuanians fought the Swedes nearby in 1609. Sweden took control of the town during the 16th-century Livonian War as part of Swedish Livonia, although it was not formally ceded by Poland-Lithuania until the 1660 Treaty of Oliva. Sweden then lost Livonia to the Russian Empire in the 1710 Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia and the 1721 Treaty of Nystad, following the Great Northern War. It belonged to the Imperial Russian Governorate of Livonia until 1917, when it was transferred to the short-lived Autonomous Governorate of Estonia. The city is occasionally referred to as Pyarnu, an incorrect reverse-transliteration from the Russian Пярну.

The town became part of independent Estonia in 1918 following World War I and the Estonian War of Independence.

The city was occupied by the Soviet Red Army along with the rest of Estonia in 1940 during World War II, and its German population fled the town. It was briefly occupied by Germany from 1941 until 1944 before it was reoccupied by the Soviet Union during its counteroffensives. Pärnu then continued as being part of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1944 to 1991, when Estonia restored its independence.

During the Great Northern War, the University of Dorpat (Tartu) was relocated to Pärnu from 1699 to 1710. The university has still maintained a branch campus in Pärnu to this day (1,000 students in the 2004/2005 school year).[2]

Geography[edit]

Districts of Pärnu[edit]

Drone video of Pärnu coastal meadow hiking trail, beach and town in June 2022

There are seven districts in Pärnu: Ülejõe, Rääma, Vana-Pärnu, Kesklinn, Rannarajoon, Eeslinn and Raeküla.[3]

Climate[edit]

Pärnu lies within the temperate humid continental climate zone.

Climate data for Pärnu (normals 1991–2020, extremes 1842–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 9.0
(48.2)
8.3
(46.9)
18.1
(64.6)
26.2
(79.2)
31.2
(88.2)
32.6
(90.7)
34.1
(93.4)
33.4
(92.1)
28.0
(82.4)
22.4
(72.3)
12.6
(54.7)
10.3
(50.5)
34.1
(93.4)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
−1
(30)
3.0
(37.4)
10.2
(50.4)
16.7
(62.1)
20.2
(68.4)
23.0
(73.4)
21.8
(71.2)
16.6
(61.9)
9.9
(49.8)
4.3
(39.7)
1.1
(34.0)
10.4
(50.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.0
(26.6)
−3.7
(25.3)
−0.5
(31.1)
5.4
(41.7)
11.4
(52.5)
15.4
(59.7)
18.3
(64.9)
17.2
(63.0)
12.5
(54.5)
6.8
(44.2)
2.2
(36.0)
−0.9
(30.4)
6.8
(44.2)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −5.5
(22.1)
−6.6
(20.1)
−3.7
(25.3)
1.2
(34.2)
6.1
(43.0)
10.7
(51.3)
13.6
(56.5)
12.8
(55.0)
8.6
(47.5)
3.8
(38.8)
0.0
(32.0)
−3.1
(26.4)
3.2
(37.8)
Record low °C (°F) −34.8
(−30.6)
−34.3
(−29.7)
−28.5
(−19.3)
−19.7
(−3.5)
−5.3
(22.5)
−0.1
(31.8)
3.4
(38.1)
2.6
(36.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
−10.9
(12.4)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−34.5
(−30.1)
−34.8
(−30.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 61
(2.4)
49
(1.9)
43
(1.7)
40
(1.6)
39
(1.5)
78
(3.1)
74
(2.9)
84
(3.3)
61
(2.4)
83
(3.3)
73
(2.9)
71
(2.8)
761
(30.0)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12 9 10 8 7 9 10 10 11 12 14 14 125
Average relative humidity (%) 88 87 81 73 68 73 75 78 82 86 89 89 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 38.8 69.6 148.2 210.1 300.3 293.5 306.4 258.6 172.8 95.5 36.5 24.3 1,950.2
Source: Estonian Weather Service (precipitation days 1971–2000)[4][5][6][7][8][9]
Coastal temperature data for Pärnu
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) 0.4
(32.72)
0.0
(32.00)
-0.1
(31.82)
1.9
(35.42)
7.7
(45.86)
14.7
(58.46)
19.4
(66.92)
19.1
(66.38)
15.9
(60.62)
10.7
(51.26)
6.7
(44.06)
3.6
(38.48)
8.3
(47.00)
Source 1: Seatemperature.org[10]

Waterbodies[edit]

Pärnu River, Sauga River, Reiu River, Pärnu Moat, Pärnu Bay.

Pärnu Moat was previously a part of Pärnu Fortress. Nowadays, it is mainly used as a venue for different events.[11]

Demographics[edit]

Year 1881 1897 1922 1934 1959 1970 1979 1989 2000 2011 2012 2017 2021
Population 12,966 12,898 18,499 20,334 22,367 50,224 54,051 53,885 45,500 39,728 40,401 40,700 40,228
Ethnic composition 1922–2021
Ethnicity 1922[12] 1934[13] 1941[14] 1959[15] 1970[16] 1979[17] 1989[17] 2000[18] 2011[19] 2021[20]
amount % amount % amount % amount % amount % amount % amount % amount % amount % amount %
Estonians 16440 89.0 18436 90.7 18370 96.7 26669 73.9 34370 74.2 36748 74.1 37939 72.4 36112 79.4 33000 83.1 33682 83.7
Russians 494 2.67 469 2.31 328 1.73 - - 9146 19.7 9676 19.5 10753 20.5 6951 15.3 5076 12.8 4256 10.6
Ukrainians - - 7 0.03 - - - - 1010 2.18 1255 2.53 1631 3.11 966 2.12 671 1.69 887 2.20
Belarusians - - - - - - - - 412 0.89 493 0.99 546 1.04 297 0.65 179 0.45 184 0.46
Finns - - 14 0.07 11 0.06 - - 517 1.12 543 1.09 534 1.02 331 0.73 254 0.64 324 0.81
Jews 236 1.28 248 1.22 0 0.00 - - 190 0.41 138 0.28 76 0.15 35 0.08 20 0.05 13 0.03
Latvians - - 143 0.70 88 0.46 - - 135 0.29 165 0.33 150 0.29 85 0.19 65 0.16 128 0.32
Germans 1030 5.57 871 4.28 - - - - - - 105 0.21 132 0.25 69 0.15 50 0.13 55 0.14
Tatars - - 0 0.00 - - - - - - 76 0.15 103 0.20 45 0.10 33 0.08 31 0.08
Poles - - 34 0.17 26 0.14 - - - - 108 0.22 81 0.15 60 0.13 35 0.09 37 0.09
Lithuanians - - 10 0.05 6 0.03 - - 60 0.13 80 0.16 83 0.16 82 0.18 60 0.15 58 0.14
unknown 0 0.00 28 0.14 8 0.04 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 226 0.50 59 0.15 129 0.32
other 281 1.52 74 0.36 167 0.88 9398 26.1 476 1.03 236 0.48 361 0.69 241 0.53 226 0.57 444 1.10
Total 18481 100 20334 100 19004 100 36067 100 46316 100 49623 100 52389 100 45500 100 39728 100 40228 100

Economy[edit]

Rüütli street in Pärnu.

Today Pärnu is an economically balanced region with a comprehensive range of industries. Foreign investments and new businesses with up-to-date technologies have enhanced job creation and higher competitiveness of the businesses in the world markets. Several enterprises of Pärnu region stand out as the best in Estonia.

Significant flows of exports from Pärnu region and South-Estonia pass through the Port of Pärnu which lies at the mouth of the Pärnu River. In recent years, the port has developed into an important regional harbour for south-western and southern Estonia. Pärnu's fame as a rehabilitation and holiday resort dates back to the middle of the 19th century. The foundation of the first bathing facility in 1838 is considered the birth date of Pärnu resort. Today Pärnu has all desirable qualities of a modern holiday resort – it has spas and rehabilitation centres, hotels, conference and concert venues, golf courses and tennis courts, restaurants and pubs. Long tradition of as a resort has made Pärnu well known in Finland and Scandinavian countries.

Tourism[edit]

Pärnu mud baths

The majority of the tourists in Pärnu are Finns, Swedes and Russians. German, Latvian, and Norwegian tourists have also become more common.

In 1837, a tavern near the beach was made into a bathing establishment. The establishment accommodated 5–6 bathrooms that provided hot seawater baths in summer and operated as a sauna in winter. The wooden building was burnt down in the course of World War I. In 1927, the present stone building of Pärnu Mud Baths was erected at the same site.

Since 1996 Pärnu has been known as Estonia's Summer Capital.[21][22]

Starting from 2015 the city of Pärnu hosts the annual Weekend Festival, the largest dance music festival in the Nordic and Baltic region. Stages are headlined by DJs from across the electronic dance music spectrum, with audiovisual support. Some of the past and upcoming artists to perform include Martin Garrix, David Guetta, Avicii, Steve Aoki, The Chainsmokers, Tiësto, Armin van Buuren, Hardwell, Robin Schulz, Afrojack, deadmau5, Knife Party, Desiigner and many more. Pärnu is also known for its seawall. According to legend, if a couple holds hands while journeying along the wall and kisses at its endpoint they will stay together forever.[23]

Pärnu beach

Notable people[edit]

Memorial monument of Lydia Koidula created by Amandus Adamson

Honorary citizens[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Population by sex, age and place of residence after the 2017 administrative reform, 1 January. Statistics Estonia.
  2. ^ University of Tartu Pärnu College
  3. ^ "LINNAOSADE JA -JAGUDE LÜHENDID". www.eki.ee (in Estonian). Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Climate normals-Temperature". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  5. ^ "Climate normals-Precipitation". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  6. ^ "Climate normals-Humidity". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  7. ^ "Climate normals-Sunshine". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  8. ^ "Rekordid" (in Estonian). Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  9. ^ "Kliimanormid-Sademed, õhuniiskus" (in Estonian). Estonian Weather Service. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  10. ^ "Pärnu Sea Temperature". 2023-04-25.
  11. ^ "Pärnu moat, Estonia". Visitestonia.com. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  12. ^ 1922 a. üldrahvalugemise andmed. Vihk I ja II, Rahva demograafiline koosseis ja korteriolud Eestis (in Estonian and French). Tallinn: Riigi Statistika Keskbüroo. 1924. p. 33. ISBN 9789916103067 – via Digar.
  13. ^ Rahvastiku koostis ja korteriolud. 1.III 1934 rahvaloenduse andmed. Vihk II (in Estonian and French). Tallinn: Riigi Statistika Keskbüroo. 1935. pp. 47–53. hdl:10062/4439.
  14. ^ Eesti Statistika : kuukiri 1942-03/04 (in German and Estonian). Tallinn: Riigi Statistika Keskbüroo. 1942. pp. 66–67.
  15. ^ Katus, Kalev; Puur, Allan; Põldma, Asta (2005). Rahvastiku ühtlusarvutatud sündmus- ja loendusstatistika: Pärnumaa 1965-1990. Sari C (in Estonian and English). Tallinn: Eesti Kõrgkoolidevaheline Demouuringute Keskus. pp. 31–32. ISBN 9985-820-83-5.
  16. ^ Население районов, городов и поселков городского типа Эстонской ССР : по данным Всесоюзной переписи населения на 15 января 1970 года (in Russian). Tallinn: Eesti NSV Statistika Keskvalitsus. 1972. p. 75.
  17. ^ a b Eesti Vabariigi maakondade, linnade ja alevite rahvastik. 1. osa, Rahvaarv rahvuse, perekonnaseisu, hariduse ja elatusallikate järgi : 1989. a. rahvaloenduse andmed (in Estonian). Tallinn: Eesti Vabariigi Riiklik Statistikaamet. 1990. pp. 28, 33. ISBN 978-9949-7193-2-7 – via Digar.
  18. ^ "RL222: RAHVASTIK ELUKOHA JA RAHVUSE JÄRGI". Estonian Statistical Database (in Estonian).
  19. ^ "RL0429: RAHVASTIK RAHVUSE, SOO, VANUSERÜHMA JA ELUKOHA JÄRGI, 31. DETSEMBER 2011". Estonian Statistical Database. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  20. ^ "RL21429: Rahvastik Rahvuse, Soo, Vanuserühma Ja ELukoha (Haldusüksus) Järgi, 31. DETSEMBER 2021". Estonian Statistical Database (in Estonian).
  21. ^ suvepealinn
  22. ^ "Short history – VisitPärnu.com". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2012-06-15.
  23. ^ "Pärnu Seawall".

24. Republic of Pärnu website Republic of Pärnu in-game page "The Republic of Pärnu", fictional nation on sim-strat game politicsandwar.com. browser-video-game. Created C. 2022

External links[edit]

publicofparnugov.odoo.com/en [ fictional country ]