P-700 Granit

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P-700 Granit
(NATO reporting name: SS-N-19 'Shipwreck')
P-700 Granit
Type Long-range Cruise missile
Submarine-launched cruise missile, anti-ship missile
Place of origin Soviet Union/Russia
Service history
In service Since 1983
Used by Soviet Union, Russia
Production history
Designer OKB-52/NPO Mashinostroyeniya Chelomey
Designed 1970s
Produced 1985–1992
Specifications
Weight 7,000 kg (15,400 lb)
Length 10 m (33 ft)
Diameter 0.85 m (33 in)
Warhead High explosive or nuclear
Warhead weight 750 kg (1,653 lb) HE (unknown composition, probably RDX or similar) or 500 kt fission-fusion thermonuclear weapon
Blast yield 500 kt

Engine Ramjet
Operational
range
625 km (388 mi)[1]
Speed Mach 1.6 (low altitude)
Mach 2.5+ (high altitude)
Guidance
system
Inertial guidance, active radar homing with home-on-jam, and Legenda satellite targeting system (believed to be nonfunctional after the fall of the USSR)
Launch
platform
Oscar class submarines
Kirov & Admiral Kuznetsov class ships

The P-700 Granit (Russian: П-700 "Гранит"; English: granite) is a Soviet and Russian naval anti-ship cruise missile. Its GRAU designation is 3M45, its NATO reporting name SS-N-19 Shipwreck. It comes in surface-to-surface and submarine-launched variants, and can also be used against ground targets.[2][3]

Design and building[edit]

The P-700 was designed in the 1970s to replace the P-70 Ametist and P-120 Malakhit, both effective missiles but with too short a range in the face of improving weapons of U.S. Navy carrier battle groups. The missile was partially derived from the P-500 Bazalt.

Built by Chelomei/NPO Mashinostroenia, the bulging 10 m missile has swept-back wings and tail, weighs around 7,000 kilograms and can be fitted with either a 750 kg HE warhead, a FAE warhead, or a 500 kt nuclear warhead. A stubby cylindrical solid-fuel rocket is fitted to the rear for launch; this booster stage is released when the missile enters sustained flight. For many years it was believed that this missile used a turbojet engine during the sustained flight; after the Russian and the Western media gained access to its performance characteristics, it was understood that its propulsion system was a ramjet.[4][5]

The P-700 has a distinctive annular air intake in the nose. Maximum speed is believed to be between Mach 1.6 and more than Mach 2.5.[6] Range estimates vary between 400 km[7] to 500 km[3] to 550–625 km.[8] The guidance system is mixed-mode, with inertial guidance, terminal active radar homing guidance and also anti-radar homing. Mid-course correction is probable.

The missile, when fired in a swarm (group of 4–8) has a unique guidance mode. One of the weapons climbs to a higher altitude and designates targets while the others attack. The missile responsible for target designation climbs in short pop-ups, so as to be harder to intercept. The missiles are linked by data connections, forming a network. If the designating missile is destroyed the next missile will rise to assume its purpose. Missiles are able to differentiate targets, detect groups and prioritize targets automatically using information gathered during flight and types of ships and battle formations pre-programmed in an onboard computer. They will attack targets in order of priority, highest to lowest: after destroying the first target, any remaining missiles will attack the next prioritized target.[9][10] Such description received some doubts.[11] The missile has a means of countering the attacking anti-missiles. Also, the on-board computer carries data designed to counter an enemy's electronic warfare and to evade counter-measures.[12][13]

The P-700 was derived from the P-500 Bazalt missile with a turbojet.[14] The P-700 was in turn developed into the P-800 Oniks, which uses ramjet propulsion, and the BrahMos missile, a joint Indian/Russian modernization of the P-800.

Deployment[edit]

SS-N-19 launchers on the Kirov-class battlecruiser Frunze.

Initial deployment was aboard the cruiser Kirov (now the Admiral Ushakov) in 1980 and the missile entered service on 19 July 1983.[12]

Unusually for an aircraft carrier, the Kuznetsov-class also carried 12 Granit launchers. This gave the Admiral Kuznetsov an additional primary attack capability,[15] but also had the political advantage of classing the vessel as an aircraft cruiser instead.[i] Unconfirmed reports say that the missiles were removed in 2000, to provide more aircraft hangar space.

It is currently in service with the Russian Northern Fleet on the Kirov-class battlecruisers Admiral Nakhimov and Pyotr Velikyi, and with the Russian Northern and Pacific fleets as part of the armoury for the Oscar-class cruise missile submarines.

The Kursk carried 24 missiles when it sank following a torpedo explosion during an exercise on 12 August 2000. The Russian navy was extremely concerned about possible NATO attempts to recover a missile and guarded the site of the wreck throughout the recovery effort. The missiles were recovered intact following a $65 million salvage operation.[16][17][18][19]

The size of the missile limits the platforms on which it can operate and be launched from.[20] It has only been deployed from Oscar-class submarines, Kirov-class battlecruisers, and the Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier. Ships of all three types will have their Granit missiles replaced with new launch cells to carry smaller Oniks and Kalibr cruise missiles in greater numbers.

P-1000 Vulkan deployment[edit]

The P-1000 missile was partially derived from the P-500 and P-700.[21][22][23] Its maximum speed is claimed to be between Mach 1.5 - Mach 2.5 depending on altitude, and its range is claimed to be between 700 and 1000 km (800).[24] Warhead: 500 kg. Years of production 1985-1992.[25] The body of the missile resembles that of the P-500, but it has the ability of the P-700 to overcome defensive countermeasures. Long range missile can achieve the target only at low altitudes (up to 25 meters or lower) approximation (in which case the maximum range is less than 500 km).

Substitution in 2018[edit]

Officially - the beginning of a replacement for Zircon (missile).[26]

Former operators[edit]

Current operators[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dr C Kopp. "Soviet/Russian Cruise Missiles". Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
  2. ^ "АПЛ «Смоленск» выполнила стрельбу крылатой ракетой по мишени на Новой Земле - Еженедельник «Военно-промышленный курьер»". vpk-news.ru (in Russian). 
  3. ^ a b Video: Russia’s Oscar-II SSN Tomsk launches cruise missile against coastal target - Navyrecognition.com, 13 July 2017
  4. ^ Scott, Richard Russia's 'Shipwreck' missile enigma solved Jane's Naval Forces News. 10 September 2001
  5. ^ Fry, Ronald S. (January–February 2004). "A Century of Ramjet Propulsion Technology Evolution" (PDF). Journal of Propulsion and Power. Columbia, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University. 20 (1). 
  6. ^ Antiship cruise missile "Granit" Archived 15 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Kuznetsov Class (Type 1143.5) Aircraft Carrier, Russia - Naval-Technology.com
  8. ^ John Pike. "P-700 3M-45 Granat SS-N-19 Shipwreck". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  9. ^ "[7.0] Soviet-Russian Naval Cruise Missiles / Chinese Cruise Missiles". Vectorsite.net. 13 August 2000. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  10. ^ "Крылатая противокорабельная ракета П-700 Гранит (3М-45) | Ракетная техника" (in Russian). New-factoria.ru. 30 July 2010. Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  11. ^ NAVAL&MERCHANT SHIPS 2012 May issue
  12. ^ a b "ВПК "НПО машиностроения" - Новости". Npomash.ru. 19 July 1983. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  13. ^ Сафронов, Дмитрий (2001). "Тайна оружия АПЛ "Курск"". strana.ru. Archived from the original on 10 March 2004. Retrieved 22 May 2018. 
  14. ^ [1] Archived 15 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ "Russia says new UK aircraft carrier 'a convenient target'". BBC News Online. 29 June 2017. 
  16. ^ Сафронов, Дмитрий (2001). "Тайна оружия АПЛ "Курск"". strana.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 10 March 2004. Retrieved 22 May 2018. 
  17. ^ Peter Davidson, Huw Jones, John H. Large (October 2003). "The Recovery of the Russian Federation Nuclear Powered Submarine Kursk" (PDF). World Maritime Technology Conference, San Francisco. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2015. 
  18. ^ "Russian Submarine Kursk Catastrophe". Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014. 
  19. ^ "Kursk reaches harbour". BBC News. 10 October 2001. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  20. ^ Опндсйжхъ Он ╚Ярпекю╩ (in Russian). Testpilot.ru. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  21. ^ "Противокорабельный ракетный комплекс П-500 "Базальт" / П-1000 "Вулкан"" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
  22. ^ Administrator. "Противокорабельная крылатая ракета "Вулкан"" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
  23. ^ "П-1000 «Вулкан»" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 6 June 2004. Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
  24. ^ tvzvezda.ru, Редакция. "Никому в мире и не снилось: почему ракете «Вулкан» до сих пор нет равных на планете" (in Russian). 
  25. ^ "Продукция ПО "Стрела"" (in Russian). Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
  26. ^ "Российская ракета "Циркон" достигла восьми скоростей звука" (in Russian). 15 April 2017. 


  • Jane's Underwater Weapon Systems 2006–2007

External links[edit]

  • www.dtig.org Russian/Soviet Sea-based Anti-Ship Missiles (pdf)