P-800 Oniks

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Yakhont/Onyx missile
Yakhont.jpg
Yakhont/Onyx missile at MAKS Airshow in Zhukovskiy, 1997.
Type Cruise missile
Air-launched cruise missile
Submarine-launched cruise missile
Anti-ship missile
Surface-to-surface missile
Land-attack missile
Place of origin Soviet Union / Russia
Service history
In service 2002–present[1]
Used by See Operators
Wars Syrian Civil War
Production history
Manufacturer NPO Mashinostroyeniya
Produced 1987–present
Specifications
Weight 3,000 kg (6,614 lb)
Length 8.9 m (29.2 ft)
Diameter 0.7 m (2.3 ft)
Warhead national ver. 300 kg semi-armour piercing HE, thermonuclear; for export 200 kg semi-armour piercing HE
Detonation
mechanism
delay fuze

Engine Ramjet
4 tons of thrust
Wingspan 1.7 m (5.6 ft)
Propellant kerosene liquid fuel
Operational
range
600 km (370 mi; 320 nmi) (Oniks version for Russia)
120 to 300 km (75 to 186 mi; 65 to 162 nmi) depending on altitude (Yakhont export version)
Flight ceiling 14,000 m
Flight altitude 10 meters or higher
Speed Mach 2.5
Guidance
system
midcourse inertial guidance, active radar homing-passive radar seeker head
Accuracy 1.5 m[2]
Launch
platform
coastal installations, naval ship, Fixed-wing aircraft

The P-800 Oniks (Russian: П-800 Оникс; English: Onyx), also known in export markets as Yakhont (Russian: Яхонт; English: ruby), is a Soviet / Russian supersonic anti-ship cruise missile developed by NPO Mashinostroyeniya as a ramjet version of P-80 Zubr. Its GRAU designation is 3M55, the air launched Kh-61 variant also exists. The missile has the NATO reporting codename SS-N-26 "Strobile" . Development officially started in 1983, and in the 1990s the anti-ship missile was tested on the Project 1234.7 ship. In 2002 the missile passed the whole range of trials and was commissioned.[3] It is reportedly a replacement of the P-270 Moskit, but possibly also of the P-700 Granit. The P-800 was used as the basis for the joint Russian-Indian supersonic missile BrahMos.[4]

Description[edit]

The missile is carried in flight by aerodynamic lift. The solid-propellant booster is located in the ramjet's combustion chamber and is ejected by the airflow after it has burned out.

Advantages[edit]

  • Over-the-horizon firing range
  • Full autonomy of combat use ("fire and forget")
  • A set of flexible ("low-profile sea-skimming", "high-low") trajectories
  • High supersonic speed in all phases of flight
  • Full harmonization for a wide range of platforms (surface ships, submarines and land-based launchers)
  • Possible use of the missile in electronic countermeasures environment and under enemy fire

Operational history[edit]

Syria[edit]

In 2010 Sergei Prikhodko, senior adviser to the Russian President, has said that Russia intends to deliver P-800 to Syria based on the contracts signed in 2007.[5][6] Syria received 2 Bastion missile systems with 36 missiles each (72 in total).[7] The missiles' test was broadcast by Syrian state TV.[8]

In May 2013, Russia continued the contract delivery to the Syrian government supplying missiles with an advanced radar to make them more effective to counter any future foreign military invasion.[9][10] The warehouse containing the Bastion Missile was destroyed in an Israeli air strike on Latakia on 5 July 2013, but US intelligence analysts believe that some missiles had been removed before the attack.[11]

Oniks missiles were used in 2016 against ISIS targets.[12][13][14]

Specifications[edit]

  • Length: 8.9 m
  • Diameter: 0.7 m
  • Wingspan: 1.7 m
  • Weight: 3,100 kg
  • Speed at altitude: 750 m/s (Mach 2.6)
  • Surface speed: Mach 2
  • Engine: ramjet, weight 200 kg, 4 tons of thrust
  • Range: 120–300 km / 600 km for Russian ship/sub deployed non-export model[15]
  • for the combined trajectory (hi-lo) – 300 km
  • for low-altitude trajectory (lo-lo) – 120 km
  • Flight altitude of 10,000–14,000 m
  • Warhead: national version: 300 kg semi-armour piercing HE, thermonuclear; export version: 200 kg HE
  • Fuel: kerosene T-6

Radar homing head

  • all-weather monopulse active-passive, with frequency hopping
  • Immunity: high, from active spoofing, dipole clouds
  • Range: 50 km active[16]
  • Launchable sea state – up to 7 points
  • Warm-up time from power on: no more than 2 min
  • Current consumption at 27 V circuit: up to 38 A
  • Maximum angle of the target search: ± 45 °
  • Homing weight: 85 kg

Variants[edit]

  • 3M55 Oniks – Base version for Russia.
  • P-800 Yakhont – Export version of Oniks.
  • P-800 Bolid - Submarine-launched version of Yakhont.[17]
  • Brahmos – Co-developed by Russia and India, based on Oniks, produced by BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited in India. BrahMos-II, a hypersonic version is also being developed.[citation needed]
  • Bastion-P – Coast mobile missile system. Officially it was entered service in 2015.[18]
  • Kh-61 - Air launched air to surface version.

Platforms[edit]

Naval[edit]

Current
Future

Land[edit]

Standard batteries of the K-300 Bastion-P (Бастион-П-Подвижный):

  • 4 self-propelled launchers K-340P with 2 "Yakhont" missiles (crew of 3 persons)
  • 1–2 Command and Control vehicles (ASBU) PBRK (crew of 5 persons)
  • 1 security alert car (MOBD)
  • 4 Transportation and loading vehicles (TLV K342P)

Operators[edit]

Map with P-800 operators in blue
  • Hezbollah – with diverse launching platforms.[19]
  •  Indonesia – 4 VLS (vertical launching system) mounted on Ahmad Yani class frigate KRI Oswald Siahaan (354), 50 missiles.[20]
  •  Russia – 3 "Bastion-P" complexes delivered in 2010, all the complexes taken into service with the Russian Black Sea Fleet's 11th Independent Coastal Missile-Artillery Brigade stationed near Anapa[21] and the Project 1234.7 Nakat, a one-off Nanuchka IV-class corvette commissioned in 1987 with 2x6 Oniks.[22] The "Bastion-P" is deployed by Russian forces in Crimea.[23] One more Bastion-P was delivered in 2015.[24] 2 Bastion systems are in service with the Northern Fleet and at least one with Western Military District (Baltic Fleet).[25][26] Two more systems entered service in 2016 with Pacific Fleet.[27][28] Newest class of Russian nuclear-powered attack submarines, Yasen-class submarine, can also launch the missile.[29] Submarine-launched variant entered service in 2016.[30] Two Bastion missile systems delivered in 2017 and one more in 2018.[31][32]
  •  Syria – 2 "Bastion-P" complexes delivered in 2011, 72 missiles.[33][34]
  •  Vietnam – 2 "Bastion-P" land-based coastal defense systems delivered, 40 missiles.[35][36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "MIC "NPO mashinostroyenia" - History". Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  2. ^ http://missiledefenseadvocacy.org/missile-threat-and-proliferation/missile-proliferation/russia/16962-2/
  3. ^ "Nakat". Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  4. ^ "Brahmos Missiles - The Hans India". www.thehansindia.com. Retrieved 2015-11-22. 
  5. ^ "BBC News - Syria crisis: Russia 'sends sophisticated weapons'". BBC News. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  6. ^ "Despite Israeli protests, Russia won't halt arms sale to Syria". Haaretz.com. 30 August 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  7. ^ "Bastion missile systems to protect Russian naval base in Syria". Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  8. ^ "Syria Navy with Yakhont missile.flv". YouTube. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  9. ^ "BBC News - Syria crisis: US rues Russian missiles sent to Damascus". BBC News. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  10. ^ Gordon, Michael R.; Schmitt, Eric (16 May 2013). "Russia Sends More Advanced Missiles to Aid Assad in Syria" – via NYTimes.com. 
  11. ^ Gordon, Michael R. (31 July 2013). "Some Syria Missiles Eluded Israeli Strike, Officials Say". New York Times. 
  12. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=veunTV1RUPQ
  13. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-russia-strikes-idUSKBN13A19Y?il=0
  14. ^ https://www.middleeastobserver.org/2016/11/15/putin-orders-bombing-aircraft-carrier-syria-hours-after-call-with-trump/
  15. ^ Litovkin, Dmitry (8 August 2013). "Russian supersonic missiles behave like wolves". 
  16. ^ http://www.granit-electron.ru/products/mil/complex/yahont_head/
  17. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/ss-n-26.htm
  18. ^ "ВПК "НПО машиностроения" - Новости". 
  19. ^ Amos Harel and Gili Cohen: Hezbollah: From terror group to army, Haaretz, 12 July 2016. Quote: "Hezbollah now [as compared to 2006] has Yakhont missiles with a longer range, better precision and diverse launching options." [1]. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  20. ^ Koh Swee Lean Collin (31 May 2011). "Indonesia's Anti-ship Missiles: New Development In Naval Capabilities – Analysis". Eurasia Review. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  21. ^ "Ракетный комплекс "Бастион" будет защищать берега Анапы". Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  22. ^ Wertheim, Eric (2007). The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World: Their Ships, Aircraft, and Systems. Naval Institute Press. p. 625. ISBN 9781591149552. 
  23. ^ "Russia parades Bastion-P in Crimea". Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  24. ^ "ЦАМТО / Новости / В Национальном центре управления обороной страны под руководством С.Шойгу прошел Единый день приемки военной продукции". 
  25. ^ Sputnik. "Russia's Northern Fleet Receives New Bastion Coastal Defense Systems". 
  26. ^ "Russian Navy received more than 100 Kalibr, Onix missiles in 3rd quarter". 
  27. ^ "Sputnik Images media library". 
  28. ^ Sputnik. "Message for Tokyo? Russia Deploys Bastion-P Coastal Defense System in Kamchatka". 
  29. ^ "Russia's First Yasen-Class Submarine is Combat-Ready". 
  30. ^ "Advanced anti-ship cruise missile systems enter service with Russian Navy". 
  31. ^ http://eng.mil.ru/en/news_page/country/more.htm?id=12160216@egNews
  32. ^ http://tass.com/defense/1014216
  33. ^ "Lenta.ru: Наука и техника: Россия поставила Сирии противокорабельные комплексы "Бастион"". Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  34. ^ Haaretz (1 December 2011). "Report: Russia delivers supersonic cruise missiles to Syria". Haaretz. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  35. ^ "/ / «»". 24 October 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  36. ^ "Indonesia's Anti-ship Missiles: New Development In Naval Capabilities - Analysis". Eurasia Review. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 

External links[edit]