P-800 Oniks

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Yakhont/Oniks missile
3M55 Yakhont Onyx SS-N-26 Armia 2018.jpg
A P-800 missile at Armia 2018
TypeCruise missile
Air-launched cruise missile
Submarine-launched cruise missile
Anti-ship missile
Surface-to-surface missile
Land-attack missile
Place of originSoviet Union / Russia
Service history
In service2002–present[1]
Used bySee Operators
WarsSyrian Civil War
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine[2]
Production history
ManufacturerNPO Mashinostroyeniya
Unit cost$1.25 million[3]
Produced1987–present
Specifications
Mass3,000 kg (6,614 lb)
Length8.9 m (29.2 ft)
Diameter0.7 m (2.3 ft)
Warheadnational ver. 300 kg semi-armour piercing HE, thermonuclear; for export 200 kg semi-armour piercing HE[4]
Detonation
mechanism
delay fuze

EngineRamjet
4 tons of thrust
Wingspan1.7 m (5.6 ft)
Propellantjet fuel
Operational
range
600 km (370 mi; 320 nmi) (Oniks version for Russia)
800 km (500 mi; 430 nmi) (Oniks-M version for Russia)
120 to 300 km (75 to 186 mi; 65 to 162 nmi) depending on altitude (Yakhont export version)
Flight ceiling14,000 m (46000 ft)
Flight altitude10 meters (32 ft) or higher
Maximum speed Mach 2,6 ( 3180 km/h / 1998 MPH / 884 M/S )
Guidance
system
midcourse inertial guidance, active radar homing-passive radar seeker head
Accuracy1.5 m[5]
Launch
platform
coastal installations, naval ships, Fixed-wing aircraft

The P-800 Oniks (Russian: П-800 Оникс; English: Onyx), also known in export markets as Yakhont (Russian: Яхонт; English: ruby), is a Soviet / Russian supersonic anti-ship cruise missile developed by NPO Mashinostroyeniya as a ramjet version of P-80 Zubr. Its GRAU designation is 3M55, the air launched Kh-61 variant also exists. The missile has the NATO codename SS-N-26 "Strobile". Development officially started in 1983, and in the 1990s the anti-ship missile was tested on the Project 1234.7 ship. In 2002 the missile passed the whole range of trials and was commissioned.[6] It is reportedly a replacement for the P-270 Moskit, and possibly also of the P-700 Granit.

Description[edit]

The missile is carried in flight by aerodynamic lift. The solid-propellant booster is located in the ramjet's combustion chamber and is ejected by the airflow after it has burned out.

Advantages[edit]

  • Over-the-horizon firing range
  • Full autonomy of combat use ("fire and forget")
  • A set of flexible ("low-profile sea-skimming", "high-low") trajectories
  • High supersonic speed in all phases of flight
  • Full harmonization for a wide range of platforms (surface ships, submarines and land-based launchers)
  • Possible use of the missile in electronic countermeasures environment and under enemy fire

Operational history[edit]

Syria[edit]

In 2010 Sergei Prikhodko, senior adviser to the Russian President, has said that Russia intends to deliver P-800 to Syria based on the contracts signed in 2007.[7][8] Syria received two Bastion missile systems with 36 missiles each (72 in total).[9] The missiles' test was broadcast by Syrian state TV.[10]

In May 2013, Russia continued the contract delivery to the Syrian government supplying missiles with an advanced radar to make them more effective to counter any future foreign military invasion.[11][12] A warehouse containing the Bastion missiles was destroyed by an Israeli air strike on Latakia on 5 July 2013, but US intelligence analysts believe that some missiles had been removed before the attack.[13]

Oniks missiles were reportedly used in 2016 against ISIL targets.[14][15][16]

Russian invasion of Ukraine[edit]

In May 2022, Russia’s Defense Minister announced that Russia used high precision Oniks missiles during Russia’s invasion in Ukraine. On 1 May Oniks missiles were used to destroy military equipment near the city of Odesa.[17] There are other reported use of Oniks missiles in Donbas during the same conflict.[citation needed]

Specifications[edit]

  • Length: 8.9 m
  • Diameter: 0.7 m
  • Wingspan: 1.7 m
  • Weight: 3,100 kg
  • Speed at altitude: 750 m/s (Mach 2.6)
  • Surface speed: Mach 2
  • Engine: ramjet, weight 200 kg, 4 tons of thrust
  • Range: 120–300 km / 600 km for Russian ship/sub deployed non-export model[18]
  • for the combined trajectory (hi-lo) – 300 km
  • for low-altitude trajectory (lo-lo) – 120 km
  • Flight altitude of 10,000–14,000 m
  • Warhead: national version: 300 kg semi-armour piercing HE, thermonuclear; export version: 200 kg HE
  • Fuel: jet fuel T-6

Radar homing head

  • all-weather monopulse active-passive, with frequency hopping
  • Immunity: high, from active spoofing, dipole clouds
  • Range: 50 km active[19]
  • Launchable sea state – up to 7 points
  • Warm-up time from power on: no more than 2 min
  • Current consumption at 27 V circuit: up to 38 A
  • Maximum angle of the target search: ± 45 °
  • Homing weight: 85 kg

Variants[edit]

  • 3M55 Oniks – Base version for Russia.
  • P-800 Yakhont – Export version of Oniks.
  • P-800 Bolid - Submarine-launched version of Yakhont.[20]
  • BrahMos – Co-developed by Russia and India, based on Oniks, produced by BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited in India. BrahMos-II, a hypersonic version is also being developed.[citation needed] The P-800 was used as the basis for the joint Russian-Indian supersonic missile BrahMos.[21]
  • Bastion-P – Coast mobile missile system. Officially it entered service in 2015.[22]
  • Kh-61 - Air launched air to surface version.
  • Oniks-M - version of Oniks with improved range (up to 800 km), accuracy and ECCM capabilities.[23]

Platforms[edit]

Naval[edit]

Current
Future

Land[edit]

Standard batteries of the K-300 Bastion-P (Бастион-П-Подвижный):

  • 4 self-propelled launchers K-340P with 2 "Yakhont" missiles (crew of 3 persons)
  • 1–2 Command and Control vehicles (ASBU) PBRK (crew of 5 persons)
  • 1 security alert car (MOBD)
  • 4 Transportation and loading vehicles (TLV K342P)

Operators[edit]

Map with P-800 operators in blue
  • Hezbollah – 12 missiles[24] with diverse launching platforms.[25]
  •  Indonesia – 4 VLS (vertical launching system) mounted on Ahmad Yani-class frigate KRI Oswald Siahaan (354).[26]
  •  Russia – 3 "Bastion-P" complexes delivered in 2010, all the complexes taken into service with the Russian Black Sea Fleet's 11th Independent Coastal Missile-Artillery Brigade stationed near Anapa[27] and the Project 1234.7 Nakat, a one-off Nanuchka IV-class corvette commissioned in 1987 with 2x6 Oniks.[28] The "Bastion-P" is deployed by Russian forces in Crimea.[29] One more Bastion-P was delivered in 2015.[30] 2 Bastion systems are in service with the Northern Fleet and at least one with Western Military District (Baltic Fleet).[31] Two more systems entered service in 2016 with Pacific Fleet.[32] Newest class of Russian nuclear-powered attack submarines, Yasen-class submarine, can also launch the missile.[33] Submarine-launched variant entered service in 2016.[34] Two Bastion missile systems delivered in 2017 and one more in 2018.[35][36] Totally 4 Bal and Bastion systems in 2018.[37] One more system delivered for the Pacific Fleet in early 2019.[38][39] Totally 3 Bastion systems and 55 Oniks were delivered in 2019.[40][41] The Russian Defense Ministry concluded a contract at the Army-2020 forum for purchasing cruise missiles 3M55N Oniks.[42] 3 more delivered during 2021.[43][44]
  •  Syria – 2 "Bastion-P" complexes delivered in 2011, 72 missiles.[45][46]
  •  Vietnam – at least 2 "Bastion-P" land-based coastal defense systems delivered with at least 40 missiles.[47][48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  3. ^ Landa, Volodymyr; Gnenny, Konstantin. "Over the weekend, Russia launched missiles worth about $200 million over Ukraine., Росія за вихідні випустила по Україні ракет вартістю близько $200 млн" (in Ukrainian). Forbes. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
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External links[edit]