P-800 Oniks

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Yakhont/Oniks missile
Yakhont.jpg
Yakhont/Onyx missile at MAKS Airshow in Zhukovskiy, 1997.
TypeCruise missile
Air-launched cruise missile
Submarine-launched cruise missile
Anti-ship missile
Surface-to-surface missile
Land-attack missile
Place of originSoviet Union / Russia
Service history
In service2002–present[1]
Used bySee Operators
WarsSyrian Civil War
Production history
ManufacturerNPO Mashinostroyeniya
Produced1987–present
Specifications
Mass3,000 kg (6,614 lb)
Length8.9 m (29.2 ft)
Diameter0.7 m (2.3 ft)
Warheadnational ver. 300 kg semi-armour piercing HE, thermonuclear; for export 200 kg semi-armour piercing HE[2]
Detonation
mechanism
delay fuze

EngineRamjet
4 tons of thrust
Wingspan1.7 m (5.6 ft)
Propellantkerosene liquid fuel
Operational
range
600 km (370 mi; 320 nmi) (Oniks version for Russia)
800 km (500 mi; 430 nmi) (Oniks-M version for Russia)
120 to 300 km (75 to 186 mi; 65 to 162 nmi) depending on altitude (Yakhont export version)
Flight ceiling14,000 m
Flight altitude10 meters or higher
Maximum speed Mach 2
Guidance
system
midcourse inertial guidance, active radar homing-passive radar seeker head
Accuracy1.5 m[3]
Launch
platform
coastal installations, naval ships, Fixed-wing aircraft

The P-800 Oniks (Russian: П-800 Оникс; English: Onyx), also known in export markets as Yakhont (Russian: Яхонт; English: ruby), is a Soviet / Russian supersonic anti-ship cruise missile developed by NPO Mashinostroyeniya as a ramjet version of P-80 Zubr. Its GRAU designation is 3M55, the air launched Kh-61 variant also exists. The missile has the NATO reporting codename SS-N-26 "Strobile". Development officially started in 1983, and in the 1990s the anti-ship missile was tested on the Project 1234.7 ship. In 2002 the missile passed the whole range of trials and was commissioned.[4] It is reportedly a replacement of the P-270 Moskit, but possibly also of the P-700 Granit. The P-800 was used as the basis for the joint Russian-Indian supersonic missile BrahMos.[5]

Description[edit]

The missile is carried in flight by aerodynamic lift. The solid-propellant booster is located in the ramjet's combustion chamber and is ejected by the airflow after it has burned out.

Advantages[edit]

  • Over-the-horizon firing range
  • Full autonomy of combat use ("fire and forget")
  • A set of flexible ("low-profile sea-skimming", "high-low") trajectories
  • High supersonic speed in all phases of flight
  • Full harmonization for a wide range of platforms (surface ships, submarines and land-based launchers)
  • Possible use of the missile in electronic countermeasures environment and under enemy fire

Operational history[edit]

Syria[edit]

In 2010 Sergei Prikhodko, senior adviser to the Russian President, has said that Russia intends to deliver P-800 to Syria based on the contracts signed in 2007.[6][7] Syria received 2 Bastion missile systems with 36 missiles each (72 in total).[8] The missiles' test was broadcast by Syrian state TV.[9]

In May 2013, Russia continued the contract delivery to the Syrian government supplying missiles with an advanced radar to make them more effective to counter any future foreign military invasion.[10][11] The warehouse containing the Bastion Missile was destroyed in an Israeli air strike on Latakia on 5 July 2013, but US intelligence analysts believe that some missiles had been removed before the attack.[12]

Oniks missiles were reportedly used in 2016 against ISIL targets.[13][14][15]

Specifications[edit]

  • Length: 8.9 m
  • Diameter: 0.7 m
  • Wingspan: 1.7 m
  • Weight: 3,100 kg
  • Speed at altitude: 750 m/s (Mach 2.6)
  • Surface speed: Mach 2
  • Engine: ramjet, weight 200 kg, 4 tons of thrust
  • Range: 120–300 km / 600 km for Russian ship/sub deployed non-export model[16]
  • for the combined trajectory (hi-lo) – 300 km
  • for low-altitude trajectory (lo-lo) – 120 km
  • Flight altitude of 10,000–14,000 m
  • Warhead: national version: 300 kg semi-armour piercing HE, thermonuclear; export version: 200 kg HE
  • Fuel: kerosene T-6

Radar homing head

  • all-weather monopulse active-passive, with frequency hopping
  • Immunity: high, from active spoofing, dipole clouds
  • Range: 50 km active[17]
  • Launchable sea state – up to 7 points
  • Warm-up time from power on: no more than 2 min
  • Current consumption at 27 V circuit: up to 38 A
  • Maximum angle of the target search: ± 45 °
  • Homing weight: 85 kg

Variants[edit]

  • 3M55 Oniks – Base version for Russia.
  • P-800 Yakhont – Export version of Oniks.
  • P-800 Bolid - Submarine-launched version of Yakhont.[18]
  • Brahmos – Co-developed by Russia and India, based on Oniks, produced by BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited in India. BrahMos-II, a hypersonic version is also being developed.[citation needed]
  • Bastion-P – Coast mobile missile system. Officially it entered service in 2015.[19]
  • Kh-61 - Air launched air to surface version.
  • Oniks-M - version of Oniks with improved range (up to 800 km), accuracy and ECCM capabilities.[20]

Platforms[edit]

Naval[edit]

Current
Future

Land[edit]

Standard batteries of the K-300 Bastion-P (Бастион-П-Подвижный):

  • 4 self-propelled launchers K-340P with 2 "Yakhont" missiles (crew of 3 persons)
  • 1–2 Command and Control vehicles (ASBU) PBRK (crew of 5 persons)
  • 1 security alert car (MOBD)
  • 4 Transportation and loading vehicles (TLV K342P)

Operators[edit]

Map with P-800 operators in blue
  • Hezbollah – 12 Missiles[21] with diverse launching platforms.[22]
  •  Indonesia – 4 VLS (vertical launching system) mounted on Ahmad Yani class frigate KRI Oswald Siahaan (354).[23]
  •  Russia – 3 "Bastion-P" complexes delivered in 2010, all the complexes taken into service with the Russian Black Sea Fleet's 11th Independent Coastal Missile-Artillery Brigade stationed near Anapa[24] and the Project 1234.7 Nakat, a one-off Nanuchka IV-class corvette commissioned in 1987 with 2x6 Oniks.[25] The "Bastion-P" is deployed by Russian forces in Crimea.[26] One more Bastion-P was delivered in 2015.[27] 2 Bastion systems are in service with the Northern Fleet and at least one with Western Military District (Baltic Fleet).[28][29] Two more systems entered service in 2016 with Pacific Fleet.[30][31] Newest class of Russian nuclear-powered attack submarines, Yasen-class submarine, can also launch the missile.[32] Submarine-launched variant entered service in 2016.[33] Two Bastion missile systems delivered in 2017 and one more in 2018.[34][35] Totally 4 Bal and Bastion systems in 2018.[36] One more system delivered for the Pacific Fleet in early 2019.[37][38] Totally 3 Bastion systems and 55 Oniks in 2019.[39][40]
  •  Syria – 2 "Bastion-P" complexes delivered in 2011, 72 missiles.[41][42]
  •  Vietnam – 2 "Bastion-P" land-based coastal defense systems delivered, 40 missiles.[43][44]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "MIC "NPO mashinostroyenia" - History". Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  2. ^ https://www.navyrecognition.com/index.php/news/defence-news/2019/september/7530-russia-mod-launches-supersonic-anti-ship-oniks-p-800-cruise-missile.html
  3. ^ "P-800 Oniks (SS-N-26 Strobile) – Missile Defense Advocacy Alliance". Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
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  5. ^ "Brahmos Missiles - The Hans India". www.thehansindia.com. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
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  13. ^ "YouTube". www.youtube.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
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  16. ^ Litovkin, Dmitry (8 August 2013). "Russian supersonic missiles behave like wolves".
  17. ^ [1][dead link]
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  38. ^ "ЦАМТО / Новости / Тихоокеанский флот получил новый дивизионный комплект подвижного берегового ракетного комплекса «Бастион»". www.armstrade.org.
  39. ^ https://tass.com/defense/1083915
  40. ^ https://tass.com/defense/1114951
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External links[edit]