From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
MDR3 3g5u.png
Aliases ABCB1, ABC20, CD243, CLCS, GP170, MDR1, P-GP, PGY1, ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1, P-glycoprotein, P-gp, Pgp
External IDs MGI: 97570 HomoloGene: 55496 GeneCards: ABCB1
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ABCB1 209994 s at fs.png

PBB GE ABCB1 209993 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) n/a Chr : 8.66 – 8.75 Mb
PubMed search [2] [3]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse
ABCB1 is differentially expressed in 97 experiments [93 up/106 dn]: 26 organism parts: kidney [2 up/0 dn], bone marrow [0 up/2 dn], ...; 29 disease states: normal [10 up/3 dn], glioblastoma [0 up/2 dn], ...; 30 cell types, 22 cell lines, 11 compound treatments and 16 other conditions.
Factor Value Factor Up/Down
Legend: Atlas-legend.png - number of studies the gene is up/down in
Normal Disease state 10/3
None Compound treatment 3/0
Stromal cell Cell type 1/2
Kidney Cell type 2/0
MDA-MB-231 Cell line 0/2
Glioblastoma Disease state 0/2
Epithelial cell Cell type 0/2
HeLa Cell line 0/2
Primary Disease staging 2/0
Bone marrow Organism part 0/2
ABCB1 expression data in ATLAS

P-glycoprotein 1 (permeability glycoprotein, abbreviated as P-gp or Pgp) also known as multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) or ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) or cluster of differentiation 243 (CD243) is an important protein of the cell membrane that pumps many foreign substances out of cells. More formally, it is an ATP-dependent efflux pump with broad substrate specificity. It exists in animals, fungi and bacteria and likely evolved as a defense mechanism against harmful substances.

P-gp is extensively distributed and expressed in the intestinal epithelium where it pumps xenobiotics (such as toxins or drugs) back into the intestinal lumen, in liver cells where it pumps them into bile ducts, in the cells of the proximal tubule of the kidney where it pumps them into urinary filtrate (in the proximal tubule), and in the capillary endothelial cells composing the blood–brain barrier and blood-testis barrier, where it pumps them back into the capillaries.

P-gp is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the ABCB1 gene.[4] P-gp is a well-characterized ABC-transporter (which transports a wide variety of substrates across extra- and intracellular membranes) of the MDR/TAP subfamily.[5] The normal excretion of xenobiotics back into the gut lumen by P-gp pharmacokinetically reduces the efficacy of some pharmaceutical drugs (which are said to be P-gp substrates). In addition, some cancer cells also express large amounts of P-gp, further amplifying that effect and rendering these cancers multidrug resistant. Many drugs inhibit P-gp, typically incidentally rather than as their main mechanism of action; some foods do as well. Any such substance can sometimes be called a P-gp inhibitor.

P-gp was discovered in 1971 by Victor Ling.


A 2015 review of polymorphisms in ABCB1 found that "the effect of ABCB1 variation on P-glycoprotein expression (messenger RNA and protein expression) and/or activity in various tissues (e.g. the liver, gut and heart) appears to be small. Although polymorphisms and haplotypes of ABCB1 have been associated with alterations in drug disposition and drug response, including adverse events with various ABCB1 substrates in different ethnic populations, the results have been majorly conflicting, with limited clinical relevance."[6]


P-gp is a 170 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein, which includes 10-15 kDa of N-terminal glycosylation. The N-terminal half of the molecule contains 6 transmembrane domains, followed by a large cytoplasmic domain with an ATP-binding site, and then a second section with 6 transmembrane domains and an ATP-binding site that shows over 65% of amino acid similarity with the first half of the polypeptide.[7] In 2009, the first structure of a mammalian P-glycoprotein was solved (3G5U).[8] The structure was derived from the mouse MDR3 gene product heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris yeast. The structure of mouse P-gp is similar to structures of the bacterial ABC transporter MsbA (3B5W and 3B5X)[9] that adopt an inward facing conformation that is believed to be important for binding substrate along the inner leaflet of the membrane. Additional structures (3G60 and 3G61) of P-gp were also solved revealing the binding site(s) of two different cyclic peptide substrate/inhibitors. The promiscuous binding pocket of P-gp is lined with aromatic amino acid side chains. Through Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations, this sequence was proved to have a direct impact in the transporter's structural stability (in the nucleotide-binding domains) and defining a lower boundary for the internal drug-binding pocket.[10]

Species, tissue, and subcellular distribution[edit]

P-gp is expressed primarily in certain cell types in the liver, pancreas, kidney, colon, and jejunum.[11] P-gp is also found in brain capillary endothelial cells.[12]


Substrate enters P-gp either from an opening within the inner leaflet of the membrane or from an opening at the cytoplasmic side of the protein. ATP binds at the cytoplasmic side of the protein. Following binding of each, ATP hydrolysis shifts the substrate into a position to be excreted from the cell. Release of the phosphate (from the original ATP molecule) occurs concurrently with substrate excretion. ADP is released, and a new molecule of ATP binds to the secondary ATP-binding site. Hydrolysis and release of ADP and a phosphate molecule resets the protein, so that the process can start again.

The protein belongs to the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance. P-gp is an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump for xenobiotic compounds with broad substrate specificity. It is responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells and often mediates the development of resistance to anticancer drugs. This protein also functions as a transporter in the blood–brain barrier.[13]

P-gp transports various substrates across the cell membrane including:

Its ability to transport the above substrates accounts for the many roles of P-gp including:

  • Regulating the distribution and bioavailability of drugs
    • Increased intestinal expression of P-glycoprotein can reduce the absorption of drugs that are substrates for P-glycoprotein. Thus, there is a reduced bioavailability, and therapeutic plasma concentrations are not attained. On the other hand, supratherapeutic plasma concentrations and drug toxicity may result because of decreased P-glycoprotein expression
    • Active cellular transport of antineoplastics resulting in multidrug resistance to these drugs
  • The removal of toxic metabolites and xenobiotics from cells into urine, bile, and the intestinal lumen
  • The transport of compounds out of the brain across the blood–brain barrier
  • Digoxin uptake
  • Prevention of ivermectin and loperamide entry into the central nervous system
  • The migration of dendritic cells
  • Protection of hematopoietic stem cells from toxins.[5]

It is inhibited by many drugs, such as Amiodarone, Azithromycin, Captopril, Clarithromycin, Cyclosporine, Piperine, Quercetin, Quinidine, Quinine, Reserpine, Ritonavir, Tariquidar, and Verapamil.[14]

Regulation of expression and function of P-gp in cancer cells[edit]

At transcriptional level, the expression of P-gp has been intensively studied, and numerous transcriptional factors and pathways are known to play roles. A variety of transcriptional factors, such as p53,[15] YB-1,[16] and NF-𝜅B[17] are involved in the direct regulation of P-gp by binding to the promoter regions of P-gp gene. Many cell singling pathways are also involved in transcriptional regulation of P-gp. For example, PI3K/Akt pathway[16] and Wnt/ β-catenin pathway[18] were reported to positively regulate the expression of P-gp. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways includes three pathways: the classical MAPK/ERK pathway, p38 MAPK pathway, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, all of which were reported to have implications in the regulation of the expression of P-gp. Studies suggested that MAPK/ERK pathway is involved in the positive regulation of P-gp;[19] p38 MAPK pathway negatively regulates the expression of P-gp gene;[20] JNK pathway were reported to be involved in both positive regulation and negative regulation of P-gp.[21][22]

After year 2008, microRNAs (miRNAs) are identified as new players in regulating the expression of P-gp in both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Some members of miRNAs decrease the expression of P-gp. For example, miR-200c down-regulates the expression of P-gp through JNK signaling pathway[21] or ZEB1 and ZEB2;[23] miR-145 down-regulates mRNA of P-gp by directly binding to the 3'-UTR of the gene of P-gp and thus suppresses the translation of P-gp.[24] Some other members of miRNAs increase the expression of P-gp. For example, miR-27a up-regulates P-gp expression by suppressing Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP);[25] alternatively, miR-27a can also directly bind to the promoter of P-gp gene, which works in a similar way with the mechanism of action of transcriptional factors.[26]

The expression of P-gp is also regulated by post-translational events, such as post-transcriptional modification, degradation, and intracellular trafficking of P-gp. Pim-1 protects P-gp from ubiquitination and the following degradation in proteasome.[27] Small GTPases Rab5 down-regulates the endocytotic trafficking of P-gp and thus increases the functional P-gp level on cell membrane;[28] while Small GTPases Rab4 work in an opposite way: Rab4 down-regulates the exocytotic trafficking of P-gp from intracellular compartments to cell membrane, and therefore decreases the functional P-gp level on cell membrane.[29]

Clinical significance[edit]

Drug interactions[edit]

Some common pharmacological inhibitors of P-glycoprotein include: amiodarone, clarithromycin, ciclosporin, colchicine, diltiazem, erythromycin, felodipine, lansoprazole, omeprazole and other proton-pump inhibitors, nifedipine, paroxetine, sertraline, quinidine, tamoxifen and verapamil.[30]


Decreased P-gp expression has been found in Alzheimer’s disease brains.[31]

Altered P-gp function has also been linked to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD),[32] however, due to its ambivalent effects in intestinal inflammation many questions remain so far unanswered.[33] While decreased efflux activity may promote disease susceptibility and drug toxicity, increased efflux activity may confer resistance to therapeutic drugs in IBD.[33] Mice deficient in MDR1A develop chronic intestinal inflammation spontaneously, which appears to resemble human ulcerative colitis.[34]


P-gp was first characterized in 1976. It was shown to be responsible for conferring multidrug resistance upon mutant cultured cancer cells that had developed resistance to cytotoxic drugs.[5][35]

The structure of P-gp was resolved by x-ray crystallography in 2009.[8]


Radioactive verapamil can be used for measuring P-gp function with positron emission tomography.[36]

P-gp is also used to differentiate transitional B-cells from naive B-cells. Dyes such as rhodamine 123 and MitoTracker dyes from Invitrogen can be used to make this differentiation.[37]

Single nucleotide polymorphism rs1045642[edit]


  1. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000040584 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ Ueda K, Clark DP, Chen CJ, Roninson IB, Gottesman MM, Pastan I (Jan 1987). "The human multidrug resistance (mdr1) gene. cDNA cloning and transcription initiation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262 (2): 505–8. PMID 3027054. 
  5. ^ a b c Dean, Michael (2002-11-01). "The Human ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Superfamily". National Library of Medicine (US), NCBI. Archived from the original on 2006-02-12. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 
  6. ^ Wolking, Stefan; Schaeffeler, Elke; Lerche, Holger; Schwab, Matthias; Nies, Anne T. (2015-07-01). "Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms of ABCB1 (MDR1, P-Glycoprotein) on Drug Disposition and Potential Clinical Implications: Update of the Literature". Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 54 (7): 709–735. doi:10.1007/s40262-015-0267-1. ISSN 0312-5963. PMID 25860377. 
  7. ^ Franck Viguié (1998-03-01). "ABCB1". Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 
  8. ^ a b Aller SG, Yu J, Ward A, Weng Y, Chittaboina S, Zhuo R, Harrell PM, Trinh YT, Zhang Q, Urbatsch IL, Chang G (Mar 2009). "Structure of P-glycoprotein reveals a molecular basis for poly-specific drug binding". Science. Science. 323 (5922): 1718–22. doi:10.1126/science.1168750. PMC 2720052Freely accessible. PMID 19325113. 
  9. ^ Ward A, Reyes CL, Yu J, Roth CB, Chang G (Nov 2007). "Flexibility in the ABC transporter MsbA: Alternating access with a twist". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104 (48): 19005–10. doi:10.1073/pnas.0709388104. PMC 2141898Freely accessible. PMID 18024585. 
  10. ^ Ferreira RJ, Ferreira MJ, Dos Santos DJ (Jun 2012). "Insights on P-Glycoprotein's Efflux Mechanism Obtained by Molecular Dynamics Simulations". Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation. 8 (6): 1853–64. doi:10.1021/ct300083m. PMID 26593820. 
  11. ^ Thiebaut F, Tsuruo T, Hamada H, Gottesman MM, Pastan I, Willingham MC (Nov 1987). "Cellular localization of the multidrug-resistance gene product P-glycoprotein in normal human tissues". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 84 (21): 7735–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.21.7735. PMC 299375Freely accessible. PMID 2444983. 
  12. ^ Schinkel AH (Apr 1999). "P-Glycoprotein, a gatekeeper in the blood-brain barrier". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 36 (2-3): 179–194. doi:10.1016/S0169-409X(98)00085-4. PMID 10837715. 
  13. ^ "Entrez Gene: ABCB1". 
  14. ^ "Drug Development and Drug Interactions: Table of Substrates, Inhibitors and Inducers". 
  15. ^ Goldsmith, M. E.; Gudas, J. M.; Schneider, E.; Cowan, K. H. (1995-01-27). "Wild type p53 stimulates expression from the human multidrug resistance promoter in a p53-negative cell line". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (4): 1894–1898. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 7829527. 
  16. ^ a b Bargou, R. C.; Jürchott, K.; Wagener, C.; Bergmann, S.; Metzner, S.; Bommert, K.; Mapara, M. Y.; Winzer, K. J.; Dietel, M. (April 1997). "Nuclear localization and increased levels of transcription factor YB-1 in primary human breast cancers are associated with intrinsic MDR1 gene expression". Nature Medicine. 3 (4): 447–450. ISSN 1078-8956. PMID 9095180. 
  17. ^ Zhou, G.; Kuo, M. T. (1997-06-13). "NF-kappaB-mediated induction of mdr1b expression by insulin in rat hepatoma cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (24): 15174–15183. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9182539. 
  18. ^ Lim, Joseph C.; Kania, Katarzyna D.; Wijesuriya, Hasini; Chawla, Sangeeta; Sethi, Jaswinder K.; Pulaski, Lukasz; Romero, Ignacio A.; Couraud, Pierre O.; Weksler, Babette B. (August 2008). "Activation of beta-catenin signalling by GSK-3 inhibition increases p-glycoprotein expression in brain endothelial cells". Journal of Neurochemistry. 106 (4): 1855–1865. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05537.x. ISSN 1471-4159. PMC 4303914Freely accessible. PMID 18624906. 
  19. ^ Yang, J. M.; Vassil, A. D.; Hait, W. N. (October 2001). "Activation of phospholipase C induces the expression of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene through the Raf-MAPK pathway". Molecular Pharmacology. 60 (4): 674–680. ISSN 0026-895X. PMID 11562428. 
  20. ^ Lu, Fei; Hou, Yong-Qiang; Song, Ying; Yuan, Zheng-Jiang (January 2013). "TFPI-2 downregulates multidrug resistance protein in 5-FU-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402/5-FU cells". Anatomical Record (Hoboken, N.J.: 2007). 296 (1): 56–63. doi:10.1002/ar.22611. ISSN 1932-8494. PMID 23125179. 
  21. ^ a b Sui, Hua; Cai, Guo-Xiang; Pan, Shu-Fang; Deng, Wan-Li; Wang, Yu-Wei; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Cai, San-Jun; Zhu, Hui-Rong; Li, Qi (December 2014). "miR200c attenuates P-gp-mediated MDR and metastasis by targeting JNK2/c-Jun signaling pathway in colorectal cancer". Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 13 (12): 3137–3151. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-14-0167. ISSN 1538-8514. PMID 25205654. 
  22. ^ Bark, H.; Choi, Cheol-Hee (May 2010). "PSC833, cyclosporine analogue, downregulates MDR1 expression by activating JNK/c-Jun/AP-1 and suppressing NF-kappaB". Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology. 65 (6): 1131–1136. doi:10.1007/s00280-009-1121-7. ISSN 1432-0843. PMID 19763573. 
  23. ^ Park, Sun-Mi; Gaur, Arti B.; Lengyel, Ernst; Peter, Marcus E. (2008-04-01). "The miR-200 family determines the epithelial phenotype of cancer cells by targeting the E-cadherin repressors ZEB1 and ZEB2". Genes & Development. 22 (7): 894–907. doi:10.1101/gad.1640608. ISSN 0890-9369. PMC 2279201Freely accessible. PMID 18381893. 
  24. ^ Sachdeva, Mohit; Liu, Qian; Cao, Julia; Lu, Zhaohui; Mo, Yin-Yuan (August 2012). "Negative regulation of miR-145 by C/EBP-β through the Akt pathway in cancer cells". Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (14): 6683–6692. doi:10.1093/nar/gks324. ISSN 1362-4962. PMC 3413133Freely accessible. PMID 22495929. 
  25. ^ Li, Jipeng; Wang, Yiping; Song, Yulan; Fu, Zhongming; Yu, Wanjun (2014-08-16). "miR-27a regulates cisplatin resistance and metastasis by targeting RKIP in human lung adenocarcinoma cells". Molecular Cancer. 13. doi:10.1186/1476-4598-13-193. ISSN 1476-4598. PMC 4158130Freely accessible. PMID 25128483. 
  26. ^ Zhang, Hongwei; Li, Mengbin; Han, Yu; Hong, Liu; Gong, Taiqian; Sun, Li; Zheng, Xiushan (September 2010). "Down-regulation of miR-27a might reverse multidrug resistance of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma". Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 55 (9): 2545–2551. doi:10.1007/s10620-009-1051-6. ISSN 1573-2568. PMID 19960259. 
  27. ^ Xie, Yingqiu; Burcu, Mehmet; Linn, Douglas E.; Qiu, Yun; Baer, Maria R. (August 2010). "Pim-1 kinase protects P-glycoprotein from degradation and enables its glycosylation and cell surface expression". Molecular Pharmacology. 78 (2): 310–318. doi:10.1124/mol.109.061713. ISSN 1521-0111. PMID 20460432. 
  28. ^ Fu, Dong; van Dam, Ellen M.; Brymora, Adam; Duggin, Iain G.; Robinson, Phillip J.; Roufogalis, Basil D. (July 2007). "The small GTPases Rab5 and RalA regulate intracellular traffic of P-glycoprotein". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1773 (7): 1062–1072. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2007.03.023. ISSN 0006-3002. PMID 17524504. 
  29. ^ Ferrándiz-Huertas, Clotilde; Fernández-Carvajal, Asia; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio (2011-01-01). "Rab4 interacts with the human P-glycoprotein and modulates its surface expression in multidrug resistant K562 cells". International Journal of Cancer. 128 (1): 192–205. doi:10.1002/ijc.25310. ISSN 1097-0215. PMID 20209493. 
  30. ^ Srivalli, KMR; Lakshmi, PK (July 2012). "Overview of P-glycoprotein inhibitors: a rational outlook". Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 48 (3): 353–367. doi:10.1590/S1984-82502012000300002. open access publication – free to read
  31. ^ van Assema DM, van Berckel BN (2016). "Blood-Brain Barrier ABC-transporter P-glycoprotein in Alzheimer's disease: still a suspect?". Curr Pharm Des. 22 (38): 5808–5816. PMID 27494062. 
  32. ^ Ho GT, Moodie FM, Satsangi J (2003). "Multidrug resistance 1 gene (P-glycoprotein 170): an important determinant in gastrointestinal disease?". Gut. 52 (1): 759–766. PMID 12692067. 
  33. ^ a b Cario E (2017). "P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter in inflammatory bowel diseases: More questions than answers". World J Gastroenterol. 23 (9): 1513–1520. doi:10.3748/wjg.v23.i9.1513. PMC 5340804Freely accessible. PMID 28321153. 
  34. ^ Wilk JN, Bilsborough J, Viney JL (2005). "The mdr1a-/- mouse model of spontaneous colitis: a relevant and appropriate animal model to study inflammatory bowel disease". Immunol Res. 31 (2): 151–9. PMID 15778512. 
  35. ^ Juliano RL, Ling V (Nov 1976). "A surface glycoprotein modulating drug permeability in Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 455 (1): 152–62. doi:10.1016/0005-2736(76)90160-7. PMID 990323. 
  36. ^ Luurtsema G, Windhorst AD, Mooijer MP, Herscheid A, Lammertsma AA, Franssen EJ (2002). "Fully automated high yield synthesis of (R)- and (S)-[C-11]verapamil for measuring P-glycoprotein function with positron emission tomography". Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals. 45 (14): 1199–1207. doi:10.1002/jlcr.632. 
  37. ^ Wirths S, Lanzavecchia A (Dec 2005). "ABCB1 transporter discriminates human resting naive B cells from cycling transitional and memory B cells". European Journal of Immunology. 35 (12): 3433–41. doi:10.1002/eji.200535364. PMID 16259010. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Ling V (1997). "Multidrug resistance: molecular mechanisms and clinical relevance". Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology. 40 Suppl (7): S3–8. doi:10.1007/s002800051053. PMID 9272126. 
  • Kerb R, Hoffmeyer S, Brinkmann U (Feb 2001). "ABC drug transporters: hereditary polymorphisms and pharmacological impact in MDR1, MRP1 and MRP2". Pharmacogenomics. 2 (1): 51–64. doi:10.1517/14622416.2.1.51. PMID 11258197. 
  • Akiyama S (Dec 2001). "[Mechanisms of drug resistance and reversal of the resistance]". Human Cell. 14 (4): 257–60. PMID 11925925. 
  • Brinkmann U (2002). "Functional polymorphisms of the human multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene: correlation with P glycoprotein expression and activity in vivo". Novartis Foundation Symposium. Novartis Foundation Symposia. 243: 207–10; discussion 210–2, 231–5. doi:10.1002/0470846356.ch15. ISBN 978-0-470-84635-3. PMID 11990778. 
  • Váradi A, Szakács G, Bakos E, Sarkadi B (2002). "P glycoprotein and the mechanism of multidrug resistance". Novartis Foundation Symposium. Novartis Foundation Symposia. 243: 54–65; discussion 65–8, 180–5. doi:10.1002/0470846356.ch5. ISBN 978-0-470-84635-3. PMID 11990782. 
  • Hegedus T, Orfi L, Seprodi A, Váradi A, Sarkadi B, Kéri G (Jul 2002). "Interaction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with the human multidrug transporter proteins, MDR1 and MRP1". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1587 (2-3): 318–25. doi:10.1016/s0925-4439(02)00095-9. PMID 12084474. 
  • Pallis M, Turzanski J, Higashi Y, Russell N (Jun 2002). "P-glycoprotein in acute myeloid leukaemia: therapeutic implications of its association with both a multidrug-resistant and an apoptosis-resistant phenotype". Leukemia & Lymphoma. 43 (6): 1221–8. doi:10.1080/10428190290026277. PMID 12152989. 
  • Schaich M, Illmer T (Jul 2002). "Mdr1 gene expression and mutations in Ras proto-oncogenes in acute myeloid leukemia". Leukemia & Lymphoma. 43 (7): 1345–54. doi:10.1080/10428190290033279. PMID 12389613. 
  • Fromm MF (Nov 2002). "The influence of MDR1 polymorphisms on P-glycoprotein expression and function in humans". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 54 (10): 1295–310. doi:10.1016/S0169-409X(02)00064-9. PMID 12406646. 
  • Ambudkar SV, Kimchi-Sarfaty C, Sauna ZE, Gottesman MM (Oct 2003). "P-glycoprotein: from genomics to mechanism". Oncogene. 22 (47): 7468–85. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206948. PMID 14576852. 
  • Jamroziak K, Robak T (Apr 2004). "Pharmacogenomics of MDR1/ABCB1 gene: the influence on risk and clinical outcome of haematological malignancies". Hematology. 9 (2): 91–105. doi:10.1080/10245330310001638974. PMID 15203864. 
  • Ishikawa T, Onishi Y, Hirano H, Oosumi K, Nagakura M, Tarui S (Jul 2004). "Pharmacogenomics of drug transporters: a new approach to functional analysis of the genetic polymorphisms of ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein/MDR1)". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 27 (7): 939–48. doi:10.1248/bpb.27.939. PMID 15256718. 
  • Lee W, Lockhart AC, Kim RB, Rothenberg ML (Feb 2005). "Cancer pharmacogenomics: powerful tools in cancer chemotherapy and drug development". The Oncologist. 10 (2): 104–11. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.10-2-104. PMID 15709212. 
  • Gambrelle J, Labialle S, Dayan G, Gayet L, Barakat S, Michaud M, Grange JD, Baggetto LG (Jun 2005). "[Multidrug resistance in uveal melanoma]". Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie. 28 (6): 652–9. doi:10.1016/s0181-5512(05)81112-x. PMID 16141933. 
  • Al-Shawi MK, Omote H (Dec 2005). "The remarkable transport mechanism of P-glycoprotein: a multidrug transporter". Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes. 37 (6): 489–96. doi:10.1007/s10863-005-9497-5. PMC 1459968Freely accessible. PMID 16691488. 
  • Ferreira RJ, Ferreira MJ, Dos Santos DJ (Jun 2012). "Insights on P-Glycoprotein's Efflux Mechanism Obtained by Molecular Dynamics Simulations". Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation. 8 (6): 1853–64. doi:10.1021/ct300083m. PMID 26593820. 
  • Orlowski S, Martin S, Escargueil A (May 2006). "P-glycoprotein and 'lipid rafts': some ambiguous mutual relationships (floating on them, building them or meeting them by chance?)". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 63 (9): 1038–59. doi:10.1007/s00018-005-5554-9. PMID 16721513. 
  • Annese V, Valvano MR, Palmieri O, Latiano A, Bossa F, Andriulli A (Jun 2006). "Multidrug resistance 1 gene in inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 12 (23): 3636–44. doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i23.3636. PMID 16773678. 
  • Sekine I, Minna JD, Nishio K, Tamura T, Saijo N (Jan 2006). "A literature review of molecular markers predictive of clinical response to cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer". Journal of Thoracic Oncology. 1 (1): 31–7. doi:10.1097/01243894-200601000-00008. PMID 17409824. 
  • Kumar YS, Adukondalu D, Sathish D, Vishnu YV, Ramesh G, Latha AB, Reddy PC, Sarangapani M, Rao YM (2010). "P-Glycoprotein- and cytochrome P-450-mediated herbal drug interactions". Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions. 25 (1-4): 3–16. doi:10.1515/DMDI.2010.006. PMID 21417789. 
  • Shityakov S, Förster C (2013). "Multidrug resistance protein P-gp interaction with nanoparticles (fullerenes and carbon nanotube) to assess their drug delivery potential: a theoretical molecular docking study". International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design. 6 (4): 343–57. doi:10.1504/IJCBDD.2013.056801. PMID 24088267. 
  • Shityakov S, Förster C (2014). "In silico structure-based screening of versatile P-glycoprotein inhibitors using polynomial empirical scoring functions". Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry. 7 (7): 1–9. doi:10.2147/AABC.S56046. PMC 3969253Freely accessible. PMID 24711707. 
  • Schinkel AH (Apr 1999). "P-Glycoprotein, a gatekeeper in the blood-brain barrier". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 36 (2-3): 179–194. doi:10.1016/S0169-409X(98)00085-4. PMID 10837715. 

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.