The arts is a vast subdivision of culture, composed of many creative endeavors and disciplines. It is a broader term than "art", which as a description of a field usually means only the visual arts. The arts encompass the visual arts, the literary arts and the performing arts – music, theatre, dance and film, among others. This list is by no means comprehensive, but only meant to introduce the concept of the arts. For all intents and purposes, the history of the arts begins with the history of art. The arts might have origins in early human evolutionary prehistory.
Ancient Greek art saw the veneration of the animal form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty and anatomically correct proportions. Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features (e.g. Jupiter's thunderbolt). In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical and not material truths. Eastern art has generally worked in a style akin to Western medieval art, namely a concentration on surface patterning and local colour (meaning the plain colour of an object, such as basic red for a red robe, rather than the modulations of that colour brought about by light, shade and reflection). A characteristic of this style is that the local colour is often defined by an outline (a contemporary equivalent is the cartoon). This is evident in, for example, the art of India, Tibet and Japan. Religious Islamic art forbids iconography, and expresses religious ideas through geometry instead. The physical and rational certainties depicted by the 19th-century Enlightenment were shattered not only by new discoveries of relativity by Einstein and of unseen psychology by Freud, but also by unprecedented technological development. Paradoxically the expressions of new technologies were greatly influenced by the ancient tribal arts of Africa and Oceania, through the works of Paul Gauguin and the Post-Impressionists, Pablo Picasso and the Cubists, as well as the Futurists and others.
The Cottingley Fairies
appear in a series of five photographs taken by Elsie Wright and Frances Griffiths, two young cousins who lived in Cottingley
, near Bradford
in England. In 1917, when the first two photographs were taken, Elsie was 16 years old and Frances was 10. The pictures came to the attention of writer Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
, who used them to illustrate an article on fairies
he had been commissioned to write for the Christmas 1920 edition of The Strand Magazine
. Conan Doyle, as a Spiritualist
, was enthusiastic about the photographs, and interpreted them as clear and visible evidence of psychic
phenomena. Public reaction was mixed; some accepted that the images were genuine, but others believed they had been faked. Interest in the Cottingley Fairies gradually declined after 1921. Both girls grew up, married and lived abroad for a time. Yet the photographs continued to hold the public imagination; in 1966 a reporter from the Daily Express
newspaper traced Elsie, who had by then returned to the UK. Elsie left open the possibility that she believed she had photographed her thoughts, and the media once again became interested in the story. In the early 1980s, both admitted that the photographs were faked using cardboard cutouts of fairies copied from a popular children's book of the time. But Frances continued to claim that the fifth and final photograph was genuine. The photographs and two of the cameras used are on display in the National Media Museum
An ink-and-wash illustration of a stucco relief on a building in Palenque, a Maya city in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7th century, but was abandoned around 800. It was first discovered by European explorers in the 16th century, but remained mostly unexplored until 1773. This particular piece was likely constructed during the long reign of K'inich Janaab' Pakal (mid-7th century), and is thought to depict Mayan ancestral rulers or the parents thereof. The standing figure holds a sceptre in the left hand, and in the right, a length of material. The seated figures adopt a posture of submission or deference, with hands placed on opposite shoulders.
- 10 August 1793 – The Musée du Louvre (pictured), one of the world's largest museums, opens with an exhibition of 537 paintings
- 16 August 1945 – American ballerina Suzanne Farrell for whom George Balanchine created many new ballets is born in Cincinnati, Ohio
- 18 August 1933 – Polish director and screen-writer Roman Polanski, whose Academy Award winning films include Knife in the Water, Rosemary's Baby, and The Pianist, is born in Paris
- 19 August 1953 – Gholam-Hossein Saedi, one of the first modern playwrights of Iran, is arrested during the 1953 Iranian coup d'état
- 30 August 1953 – Gaetano Merola, the Italian conductor and founder of the San Francisco Opera, dies in San Francisco while conducting a performance of Madame Butterfly
was an American archaeologist
scholar who made significant contributions towards the study of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization
in the early 20th century. He is particularly noted for his extensive excavations of the Maya site of Chichen Itza
. He also published several large compilations and treatises on Maya hieroglyphic writing
, and wrote popular accounts on the Maya for a general audience. To his contemporaries he was one of the leading Mesoamerican
archaeologists of his day; although more recent developments in the field have resulted in a re-evaluation of his theories and works, his publications (particularly on calendric
inscriptions) are still cited. Overall, his commitment and enthusiasm for Maya studies would generate the interest and win the necessary sponsorship and backing to finance projects which would ultimately reveal much about the Maya of former times. His involvement in clandestine espionage
activities at the behest of the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence
was another, surprising, aspect of his career, which came to light only well after his death.
- Parent project
- Descendant projects