is a term that does not have a universally accepted definition, but which has variably included all written work; writing that possesses literary merit; and language that foregrounds literariness, as opposed to ordinary language
the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura
"writing formed with letters", although some definitions include spoken or sung texts
. Literature can be classified according to whether it is fiction
, and whether it is poetry
; it can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the novel
, short story
; and works are often categorised according to historical periods, or according to their adherence to certain aesthetic
features or expectations (genre
Literature may consist of texts based on factual information (journalistic or non-fiction), a category that may also include polemical works, biographies, and reflective essays, or it may consist of texts based on imagination (such as fiction, poetry, or drama). Literature written in poetry emphasizes the aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as sound, symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, ordinary meanings, while literature written in prose applies ordinary grammatical structure and the natural flow of speech. Literature can also be classified according to historical periods, genres, and political influences. While the concept of genre has broadened over the centuries, in general, a genre consists of artistic works that fall within a certain central theme; examples of genre include romance, mystery, crime, fantasy, erotica, and adventure, among others.
More about literature…
The Red Badge of Courage
is a war novel
by American author Stephen Crane
. Taking place during the American Civil War
, which concluded before Crane was born, the story is about a young private
of the Union Army
, Henry Fleming, who flees from the field of battle. Overcome with shame, he longs for a wound—a "red badge of courage"—to counteract his cowardice. When his regiment once again faces the enemy, Henry acts as standard-bearer
The novel is known for its distinctive style, which includes realistic battle sequences as well as the repeated use of color imagery, and ironic tone. Separating itself from a traditional war narrative, Crane's story reflects the inner experience of its protagonist—a soldier fleeing from combat—rather than the external world around him. Also notable for its use of what Crane called a "psychological portrayal of fear", the novel's allegorical and symbolic qualities are often debated by critics. Several of the themes that the story explores are maturation, heroism, cowardice, and the indifference of nature. The Red Badge of Courage garnered widespread acclaim—what H. G. Wells called "an orgy of praise"—shortly after its publication, making Crane an instant celebrity at the age of twenty-four.
(born Albert Chinualumogu Achebe; 16 November 1930 – 21 March 2013) was a Nigerian novelist
, and critic
. He was best known for his first novel and magnum opus, Things Fall Apart
(1958), which is the most widely read book in modern African literature
Raised by his parents in the Igbo town of Ogidi in southeastern Nigeria, Achebe excelled at school and won a scholarship for undergraduate studies. He became fascinated with world religions and traditional African cultures, and began writing stories as a university student. He gained worldwide attention for Things Fall Apart in the late 1950s; his later novels include No Longer at Ease (1960), Arrow of God (1964), A Man of the People (1966), and Anthills of the Savannah (1987).
A titled Igbo chieftain himself, Achebe's novels focus on the traditions of Igbo society, the effect of Christian influences, and the clash of Western and traditional African values during and after the colonial era. His style relies heavily on the Igbo oral tradition, and combines straightforward narration with representations of folk stories, proverbs, and oratory. He also published a number of short stories, children's books, and essay collections. From 2009 until his death, he served as a professor at Brown University in the United States.
||The entire world hung for months over this obscure problem—the most obscure, it seems to me, that has ever challenged the perspicacity of our police or taxed the conscience of our judges. The solution of the problem baffled everybody who tried to find it. It was like a dramatic rebus with which old Europe and new America alike became fascinated. That is, in truth—I am permitted to say, because there cannot be any author's vanity in all this, since I do nothing more than transcribe facts on which an exceptional documentation enables me to throw a new light—that is because, in truth, I do not know that, in the domain of reality or imagination, one can discover or recall to mind anything comparable, in its mystery, with the natural mystery of "The Yellow Room."
|— Gaston Leroux, The Mystery of the Yellow Room
Click [+] or ► to view subcategories
- 1867 - Arnold Bennett, British novelist born
- 1876 - Ferdynand Antoni Ossendowski, Polish writer born
- 1884 - Max Brod, Austrian author born
- 1894 - Louis-Ferdinand Céline, French writer born
- 1894 - Dashiell Hammett, American author born
- 1900 - Uładzimir Zylka, Belarusian poet born
- 1912 - John Cheever, American author born
- 1915 - Herman Wouk, American writer born
- 1930 - John Barth, American novelist born
- 1971 - Kaur Kender, Estonian author born