From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from P:PL)
Jump to: navigation, search
Panorama of Kraków, former capital of Poland

Welcome to the Poland Portal
Witaj w Portalu o Polsce

Coat of arms of Poland
Map of Poland

Poland is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast to the north. It is an ancient nation whose history as a state began near the middle of the 10th century. Its golden age occurred in the 16th century when it united with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to form the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. During the following century, the strengthening of the gentry and internal disorders weakened the nation. In a series of agreements in the late 18th century, Russia, Prussia and Austria partitioned Poland amongst themselves. It regained independence as the Second Polish Republic in the aftermath of World War I only to lose it again when it was occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. The nation lost over six million citizens in the war, following which it emerged as the communist People's Republic of Poland under strong Soviet influence within the Eastern Bloc. A westward border shift followed by forced population transfers after the war turned a once multiethnic country into a mostly homogeneous nation state. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union called Solidarity (Solidarność) that over time became a political force which by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency. A shock therapy program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country completed, Poland is an increasingly active member of NATO and the European Union.

Show new selections (purge cache)

From Polish history

King Charles X Gustav of Sweden in a skirmish with Polish Tartars at the battle of Warsaw, 1656
The Second Northern War was fought between 1655 and 1660 by Sweden against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia, Brandenburg-Prussia, the Habsburg Monarchy, and Denmark–Norway. In 1655, Charles X Gustav of Sweden invaded and occupied western Poland, the eastern part of which was already in Russian hands. The rapid Swedish advance became known in Poland as the Swedish Deluge. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania became a Swedish fief, Polish-Lithuanian regular armies surrendered, and King John Casimir of Poland fled to Silesia. Charles Gustav found allies in Frederick William of Brandenburg, whom he granted full sovereignty in the Polish fief of Ducal Prussia, and in George II of Transylvania, whom he promised the Polish throne. With the help of Polish Catholic guerillas of the Tyszowce Confederation, as well as Leopold I Habsburg, and Frederick William, who changed sides in return for the Polish recognition of his claim to Prussia, John Casimir was able to regain ground in 1656 and by the following year much of the fighting had moved to the Danish theater. Polish losses from the Swedish occupation, including a 40-percent drop in population, complete destruction of Warsaw and scores of other Polish towns, as well as plunder of the nation's riches and cultural artefacts, remained unmatched until World War II.

Selected picture

Frédéric Chopin's Polonaise in A-flat major, Op. 53

Manuscript sheet music for the Polonaise in A-flat major, Op. 53, known as Polonaise héroïque, a solo piano piece written in 1842 by Frédéric Chopin, a Polish-French pianist and composer of the Romantic era. This polonaise is one of Chopin's most admired compositions and has long been a favorite of the classical piano repertoire. The work requires exceptional pianistic skills and great virtuosity to be interpreted.

Did you know

From Wikipedia's new or recently improved articles about Poland:

Anna Stanisławska

You can help!

Selected biography

Jan Henryk Dąbrowski
Jan Henryk Dąbrowski (1755–1818) was a Polish military officer and a national hero. He served in the Royal Saxon Army before joining the Polish–Lithuanian army in 1792, not long before the Second Partition of Poland. He was promoted to the rank of general in the Kościuszko Uprising of 1794. After the Third Partition of Poland he became actively involved in promoting the cause of Polish independence abroad. He founded the Polish Legions in Italy serving under Napoleon since 1797, and as a general in Italian and French service he contributed to the brief restoration of the Polish state in the form of the Duchy of Warsaw after the Greater Poland Uprising of 1806. He participated in subsequent Napoleonic Wars, including the Polish–Austrian War and the French invasion of Russia. After Napoleon's defeat, he accepted a senatorial position in the Russian-controlled "Congress" Kingdom of Poland, and helped organize the new kingdom's army. In 1797, Józef Wybicki wrote Poland Is Not Yet Lost, a mazurka to be sung by Polish legionnaires in Italy, with the chorus "March, march, Dąbrowski, from Italy to Poland!" The song later became Poland's national anthem.

Selected location

A wisent in the Białowieża Forest

The Białowieża Forest, an ancient woodland straddling the Polish-Belarusian border, is one of the last and largest remaining parts of the immense primeval forest which once spread across the European Plain. It is home to the wisent (pictured), elk, wild boars, konik horses, and other animals. Its name, Puszcza Białowieska in Polish and Belavezhskaya Pushcha in Belarusian, comes from the village of Białowieża located in the forest. Historically it belonged to Polish kings and, later, Russian emperors who used it as royal hunting grounds or food reserve for the army. It has been protected since 1538 when King Sigismund I instituted death penalty for poaching the wisent. Today parts of the forest on both sides of the border are protected as national parks, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a Biosphere Reserve.

More selected locations...

Poland now

Wojciech Młynarski

Recent events

Holidays and observances in March 2017
(statutory public holidays in bold)

A bouquet of roses and carnations

Archive and more...





Government and politics




Related portals

Coat of arms of Germany.svg Coat of arms of the Czech Republic.svg Coat of arms of Slovakia.svg Lesser Coat of Arms of Ukraine.svg Coat of arms of Belarus.svg Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation.svg
Germany Czech Republic Slovakia Ukraine Belarus Lithuania Russia
P europe.png POL województwo dolnośląskie COA.svg Gold cross.png German helmet.svg Symbol-hammer-and-sickle.svg Blue compass rose.svg Flag of Europe.svg
Europe Silesia Catholicism World War II Communism NATO European Union


Wikiquote-logo.png Poland at Wikiquote
Commons-logo.png Poland at Commons
Images and other media
Wikisource-logo.png Poland at Wikisource
Source texts
Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Poland at Wikivoyage
Travel guide

Wikipedia in the languages of Poland

Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg Kaszëbskô Wikipedijô
Kashubian Wikipedia
Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg Polska Wikipedia
Polish Wikipedia
Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg Ślůnsko Wikipedyjo
Silesian Wikipedia
Incubator-logo.svg Wymysiöeryś Wikipedyj
Vilamovian Wikipedia Incubator