Epoch J2000 Equinox J2000
|Right ascension||14h 08m 10.15451s|
|Declination||−41° 23′ 52.5766″|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||12|
|U−B color index||0.71|
|B−V color index||1.06|
|Radial velocity (Rv)||3.13 km/s|
|Proper motion (μ)|| RA: -29.661 mas/yr |
Dec.: -23.823 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||8.8159 ± 0.0405 mas|
|Distance||370 ± 2 ly |
(113.4 ± 0.5 pc)
|Mass||0.76 ± 0.02 M☉|
|Radius||1.26 ± 0.15 R☉|
|Luminosity||0.35 ± 0.09 L☉|
|Temperature||3972 ± 36 K|
|Rotational velocity (v sin i)||~10 km/s|
|Age||5.4 ± 1 Myr|
PDS 70 (V1032 Centauri) is a very young T Tauri star in the constellation Centaurus. Located approximately 370 light-years from Earth, it has a mass of 0.76 M☉ and is approximately 5.4 million years old.  The star has a protoplanetary disk containing two nascent exoplanets, named PDS 70b and PDS 70c, which have been directly imaged by the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. PDS 70b was the first confirmed protoplanet to be directly imaged.
The protoplanetary disk around PDS 70 was first hypothesized in 1992 and confirmed in 2006 along with a jet-like structure. The disk has a radius of approximately 140 au. In 2012 a large gap (~65 au) in the disk was discovered, which was thought to be caused by planetary formation.
The gap was later found to have multiple regions: large dust grains were absent out to 80 au, while small dust grains were only absent out to the previously-observed 65 au. There is an asymmetry in the overall shape of the gap; these factors indicate that there are likely multiple planets affecting the shape of the gap and the dust distribution.
(in order from star)
|Protoplanetary disk||~65–140 AU||~130°||—|
In results published in 2018, a planet in the disk, named PDS 70b, was imaged by the Very Large Telescope (VLT). With a mass estimated to be a few times greater than Jupiter, the planet was thought to have a temperature of around 1000 °C and an atmosphere with clouds; its orbit has an approximate radius of 3.22 billion kilometres (21.5 au), taking around 120 years for a revolution. Modelling predicts that the planet has acquired its own accretion disk. The accretion disk was observationally confirmed in 2019, and accretion rate was measured to be at least 5*10−7 Jupiter masses per year. A 2021 study with newer methods and data suggested a lower accretion rate of 1.4±0.2*10−8 MJ/year. It is not clear how to reconcile these results with each other and with existing planetary accretion models; future research in accretion mechanisms and Hα emissions production should offer clarity. The optically thick accretion disk radius is 3.0±0.2 RJ, significantly larger than planet itself. Its bolometric temperature is 1193±20 K.
A second planet, named PDS 70c, was discovered in 2019 using the VLT's MUSE integral field spectrograph. The planet orbits its host star at a distance of 5.31 billion kilometres (35.5 au), further away than PDS 70b. PDS 70c is in a near 1:2 orbital resonance with PDS 70b, meaning that PDS 70c completes nearly one revolution once every time PDS 70b completes nearly two.
In July 2019 astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) reported the first-ever detection of a moon-forming circumplanetary disk. The disk was detected around PDS 70c, with a potential disk observed around PDS 70b. The disk was confirmed by Caltech-led researchers using the W. M. Keck Observatory in Mauna Kea, whose research was published in May 2020.
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- Keppler, M; et al. (2018). "Discovery of a planetary-mass companion within the gap of the transition disk around PDS 70". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 617: A44. arXiv:1806.11568. Bibcode:2018A&A...617A..44K. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201832957. S2CID 49562730.
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- Hashimoto, J.; et al. (2015). "The Structure of Pre-Transitional Protoplanetary Disks. II. Azimuthal Asymmetries, Different Radial Distributions of Large and Small Dust Grains in PDS 70". The Astrophysical Journal. 799 (1): 43. arXiv:1411.2587. Bibcode:2015ApJ...799...43H. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/43. S2CID 53389813.
- Stolker, Tomas; Marleau, Gabriel-Dominique; Cugno, Gabriele; Mollière, Paul; Quanz, Sascha P.; Todorov, Kamen O.; Kühn, Jonas (2020), MIRACLES: atmospheric characterization of directly imaged planets and substellar companions at 4–5 µm. II. Constraints on the mass and radius of the enshrouded planet PDS 70 b, arXiv:2009.04483
- Planet PDS 70 c on exoplanet.eu
- Constraining the Nature of the PDS 70 Protoplanets with VLTI/GRAVITY, 2021, arXiv:2101.04187
- Clery, D. (2018). "In a first, astronomers witness the birth of a planet from gas and dust". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aau6469.
- Christiaens, V.; Cantalloube, F.; Casassus, S.; Price, D.J.; Absil, O.; Pinte, C.; Girard, J.; Montesinos, M. (15 May 2019). "Evidence for a circumplanetary disc around protoplanet PDS 70 b". The Astrophysical Journal. 877 (2): L33. arXiv:1905.06370. Bibcode:2019ApJ...877L..33C. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab212b. S2CID 155100321.
- Hashimoto, Jun; Aoyama, Yuhiko; Konishi, Mihoko; Uyama, Taichi; Takasao, Shinsuke; Ikoma, Masahiro; Tanigawa, Takayuki (2020). "Accretion Properties of PDS 70b with MUSE". The Astronomical Journal. 159 (5): 222. arXiv:2003.07922. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ab811e. S2CID 212747630.
- Hubble Space Telescope UV and H훼 Measurements of the Accretion Excess Emission from the Young Giant Planet PDS 70 b, 2021, arXiv:2104.13934
- https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2021/05/hubble-uv-exoplanet-growth-measured/ ...and that’s lower than super-Jupiter gas giant planet formation models predict. Zhou et al. are quick to caution that their calculations are a snapshot in time. Additional observation, multi-decade, multi-century observations will reveal if accretion rates fluctuate greatly over time as planets go through growth spurts, so to speak, followed by periods of less active formation or if “Hα production in planetary accretion shocks is more efficient than [previous] models predicted, or [if] we underestimated the accretion luminosity/rate,” noted Zhou et al. in their paper published in April 2021 issue of The Astronomical Journal. The team further noted, “By combining our observations with planetary accretion shock models that predict both UV and Hα flux, we can improve the accretion rate measurement and advance our understanding of the accretion mechanisms of gas giant planets.”
- Molecular mapping of the PDS70 system: No molecular absorption signatures from the forming planet PDS70 b, 2021, arXiv:2106.03615
- "A Pair of Fledgling Planets Directly Seen Growing Around a Young Star". hubblesite.org. NASA. 3 June 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- Isella, Andrea; et al. (11 July 2019). "Detection of Continuum Submillimeter Emission Associated with Candidate Protoplanets". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 879 (2): L25. arXiv:1906.06308. Bibcode:2019ApJ...879L..25I. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab2a12. S2CID 189897829.
- Blue, Charles E. (11 July 2019). "'Moon-forming' Circumplanetary Disk Discovered in Distant Star System". National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
- Carne, Nick (13 July 2019). "'Moon-forming' disk found in distant star system - Discovery helps confirm theories of planet formation, astronomers say". Cosmos. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- "Astronomers confirm existence of two giant newborn planets in PDS 70 system". phys.org. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
- "Artist's Impression of PDS 70b". Retrieved May 10, 2021.