Molecular structure of the PDZ domain included in the human GOPC (Golgi-associated PDZ and coiled-coil motif-containing protein) protein
The PDZ domain is a common structural domain of 80-90 amino-acids found in the signaling proteins of bacteria, yeast, plants, viruses and animals. PDZ is an acronym combining the first letters of three proteins — post synaptic density protein (PSD95), Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor (Dlg1), and zonula occludens-1 protein (zo-1) — which were first discovered to share the domain. PDZ domains have previously been referred to as DHR (Dlg homologous region) or GLGF (glycine-leucine-glycine-phenylalanine) domains. Proteins with these domains help hold together and organize signaling complexes at cellular membranes. Protein domains, connected by intrinsically disordered flexible linker regions, induce long-range allostery via protein domain dynamics.PDZ domains also play a highly significant role in the anchoring of cell surface receptors (such as CFTR and FZD7) to the actin cytoskeleton via mediators like NHERF and ezrin. 
In general PDZ domains bind to a short region of the C-terminus of other specific proteins. These short regions bind to the PDZ domain by beta sheet augmentation. This means that the beta sheet in the PDZ domain is extended by the addition of a further beta strand from the tail of the binding partner protein.
Proteins containing this domain
PDZ domains are found in many thousands of known proteins. PDZ domain proteins are widespread in eukaryotes and eubacteria, whereas there are very few examples of the protein in archaea. PDZ domains are often associated with other protein domains and these combinations allow them to carry out their specific functions. For example the PDZ domains in the PSD-95 protein are found associated with an SH3 domain and a guanylate kinase domain.
There are roughly 260 human PDZ domains. However, several proteins contain multiple PDZ domains, so the number of unique PDZ-containing proteins is closer to 180. Listed below are some of the better studied members of this family:
Below is a complete list:
AAG12; AHNAK; AHNAK2; AIP1; ALP; APBA1; APBA2; APBA3; ARHGAP21; ARHGAP23; ARHGEF11; ARHGEF12; CASK; CLP-36; CNKSR2; CNKSR3; CRTAM; DFNB31; DLG1; DLG2; DLG3; DLG4; DLG5; DVL1; DVL1L1; DVL2; DVL3; ERBB2IP; FRMPD1; FRMPD2; FRMPD2L1; FRMPD3; FRMPD4; GIPC1; GIPC2; GIPC3; GOPC; GRASP; GRIP1; GRIP2; HTRA1; HTRA2; HTRA3; HTRA4; IL16; INADL; KIAA1849; LDB3; LIMK1; LIMK2; LIN7A; LIN7B; LIN7C; LMO7; LNX1; LNX2; LRRC7; MAGI1; MAGI2; MAGI3; MAGIX; MAST1; MAST2; MAST3; MAST4; MCSP; MLLT4; MPDZ; MPP1; MPP2; MPP3; MPP4; MPP5; MPP6; MPP7; MYO18A; ;NOS1; PARD3; PARD3B; PARD6A; PARD6B; PARD6G; PDLIM1; PDLIM2; PDLIM3; PDLIM4; PDLIM5; PDLIM7; PDZD11; PDZD2; PDZD3; PDZD4; PDZD5A; PDZD7; PDZD8; PDZK1; PDZRN3; PDZRN4; PICK1; PPP1R9A; PPP1R9B; PREX1; PRX; PSCDBP; PTPN13; PTPN3; PTPN4; RAPGEF2; RAPGEF6; RGS12; RGS3; RHPN1; RIL; RIMS1; RIMS2; SCN5A; SCRIB; SDCBP; SDCBP2; SHANK1; SHANK2; SHANK3; SHROOM2; SHROOM3; SHROOM4; SIPA1; SIPA1L1; SIPA1L2; SIPA1L3; SLC9A3R1; SLC9A3R2; SNTA1; SNTB1; SNTB2; SNTG1; SNTG2; SNX27; SPAL2; STXBP4; SYNJ2BP; SYNPO2; SYNPO2L; TAX1BP3; TIAM1; TIAM2; TJP1; TJP2; TJP3; TRPC4; TRPC5; USH1C; WHRN;
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- Lee HJ, Zheng JJ (2010). "PDZ domains and their binding partners: structure, specificity, and modification". Cell Commun. Signal 8: 8. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-8-8. PMC 2891790. PMID 20509869.
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- Ponting CP, Phillips C, Davies KE, Blake DJ (June 1997). "PDZ domains: targeting signalling molecules to sub-membranous sites". BioEssays 19 (6): 469–479. doi:10.1002/bies.950190606. PMID 9204764.
- Doyle DA, Lee A, Lewis J, Kim E, Sheng M, MacKinnon R (June 1996). "Crystal structures of a complexed and peptide-free membrane protein-binding domain: molecular basis of peptide recognition by PDZ". Cell 85 (7): 1067–1076. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81307-0. PMID 8674113.
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_PDZ_Class_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_PDZ_Class_2
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_PDZ_Class_3
- The PDZ Domain as a Complex Adaptive System A concise technical summary and a statement of principal findings and ramifications of the PDZ Domain as a Complex Adaptive System
- NCBI conserved domains entry