PDZ domain

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PDZ domain 2DC2.png
Molecular structure of the PDZ domain included in the human GOPC (Golgi-associated PDZ and coiled-coil motif-containing protein) protein
Identifiers
Symbol PDZ
Pfam PF00595
InterPro IPR001478
SMART PDZ
PROSITE PDOC50106
SCOP 1lcy
SUPERFAMILY 1lcy
CDD cd00136

The PDZ domain is a common structural domain of 80-90 amino-acids found in the signaling proteins of bacteria, yeast, plants, viruses[1] and animals.[2] Proteins containing PDZ domains play a key role in anchoring receptor proteins in the membrane to cytoskeletal components. PDZ is an acronym combining the first letters of three proteins — post synaptic density protein (PSD95), Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor (Dlg1), and zonula occludens-1 protein (zo-1) — which were first discovered to share the domain.[3] PDZ domains have previously been referred to as DHR (Dlg homologous region)[4] or GLGF (glycine-leucine-glycine-phenylalanine) domains.[5] Proteins with these domains help hold together and organize signaling complexes at cellular membranes. Protein domains, connected by intrinsically disordered flexible linker regions, induce long-range allostery via protein domain dynamics.[6] PDZ domains also play a highly significant role in the anchoring of cell surface receptors (such as Cftr and FZD7) to the actin cytoskeleton via mediators like NHERF and ezrin. [7]

In general PDZ domains bind to a short region of the C-terminus of other specific proteins. These short regions bind to the PDZ domain by beta sheet augmentation. This means that the beta sheet in the PDZ domain is extended by the addition of a further beta strand from the tail of the binding partner protein.[8]

Origins of discovery[edit]

PDZ is an acronym derived from the names of the first proteins in which the domain was observed. Post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) is a synaptic protein found only in the brain[5] Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor (Dlg1) and zona occludens 1 (ZO-1) both play an important role at junctions and in cell signaling complexes.[9] Since the discovery of PDZ domains more than 20 years ago, researchers have successfully identified hundreds of PDZ domains. The first published use of the phrase “PDZ domain” was not in a paper, but a letter. In September 1995, Dr. Mary B. Kennedy of the California Institute of Technology wrote a letter of correction to Trends in Biomedical Sciences.[10] Earlier that year, another set of scientists had claimed to discover a new protein domain which they called a DHR domain.[11] Dr. Kennedy refuted that her lab had previously described exactly the same domain as a series of “GLGF repeats”.[5] She continued to explain that in order to “better reflect the origin and distribution of the domain,” the new title of the domain would be changed. Thus, the name “PDZ domain” was introduced to the world.

Functions[edit]

Any protein may have one or several PDZ domains, which can be identical or unique (see figure to right). Different PDZ domains can have different roles, each binding a different part of the target protein or a different protein altogether.[12] In this way, PDZ domains play a vital role in organizing and maintaining complex scaffolding formations.

An example of a protein (GRIP) with seven PDZ domains.

PDZ domains are found in many different contexts and diverse proteins, but all assist in localization of cellular elements. PDZ domains are primarily involved in anchoring receptor proteins to the cytoskeleton. In any cell, an important responsibility is to get the right components—proteins and other molecules—in the right place at the right time. In the neuron, making sense of neurotransmitter activity requires specific receptors to be located in the lipid membrane at the synapse. PDZ domains are a critical part of this receptor localization process.[13] Proteins with PDZ domains generally associate with both the C-terminus of the receptor and cytoskeletal elements in order to anchor the receptor to the cytoskeleton and keep it in place.[12][14] Without such an interaction, receptors would diffuse out of the synapse due to the fluid nature of the lipid membrane.

PDZ domains are also utilized to localize elements other than receptor proteins. In the human brain, nitric oxide often acts in the synapse to modify cGMP levels in response to NMDA receptor activation.[15] In order to ensure a favorable spatial arrangements, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is brought close to NMDA receptors via interactions with PDZ domains on PSD-95, which concurrently binds nNOS and NMDA receptors.[14] With nNOS located closely to NMDA receptors, it will be activated immediately after calcium ions begin entering the cell. Instances such as this illustrate how PDZ domains can lead to greater signaling efficiency than diffusion alone.

Another interesting role played by PDZ domains involves regulation of the sorting pathway of endocytosed receptor proteins. A PDZ domain on the EBP50 protein binds to the C-terminus of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ß2-AR). EBP50 also associates with a complex that connects to actin, thus serving as a link between the cytoskeleton and ß2-AR.[16] The ß2-AR receptor is eventually endocytosed, where it will either be consigned to a lysosome for degradation or recycled back to the cell membrane. Scientists have demonstrated that when the Ser-411 residue of the ß2-AR PDZ binding domain, which interacts directly with EBP50, is phosphorylated, the receptor is degraded. If Ser-411 is left unmodified, the receptor is recycled.[16] The role played by PDZ domains and their binding sites indicate a regulative relevance beyond simply receptor protein localization.

PDZ proteins[edit]

Examples of PDZ domain-containing proteins (Figure from Lee et al. 2010).[17] Proteins are indicated by black lines scaled to the length of the primary sequence of the protein. Different shapes refer to different protein domains.

PDZ domains are found in many thousands of known proteins. PDZ domain proteins are widespread in eukaryotes and eubacteria,[2] whereas there are very few examples of the protein in archaea. PDZ domains are often associated with other protein domains and these combinations allow them to carry out their specific functions. Three of the most well documented PDZ proteins are PSD-95, GRIP, and HOMER. PSD-95 is a brain synaptic protein with three PDZ domains, each with unique properties and structures that allow PSD-95 to function in many ways. In general, the first two PDZ domains interact with receptors and the third interacts with cytoskeleton-related proteins. The main receptors associated with PSD-95 are NMDA receptors. The first two PDZ domains of PSD-95 bind to the C-terminus of NMDA receptors and anchor them in the membrane at the point of neurotransmitter release.[18] The first two PDZ domains can also interact in a similar fashion with Shaker-type K+ channels.[18] A PDZ interaction between PSD-95, nNOS and syntrophin is mediated by the second PDZ domain. The third and final PDZ domain links to cysteine-rich PDZ-binding protein (CRIPT), which allows PSD-95 to associate with the cytoskeleton.[18]

Glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP) is a post-synaptic protein with that interacts with AMPA receptors in a fashion analogous to PSD-95 interactions with NMDA receptors. When researchers noticed apparent structural homology between the C-termini of AMPA receptors and NMDA receptors, they attempted to determine if a similar PDZ interaction was occurring.[19] A yeast two-hybrid system helped them discover that out of GRIP’s seven PDZ domains, two (domains four and five) were essential for binding of GRIP to the AMPA subunit called GluR2.[12] This interaction is vital for proper localization of AMPA receptors, which play a large part in memory storage. Other researchers discovered that domains six and seven of GRIP are responsible for connecting GRIP to a family of receptor tyrosine kinases called ephrin receptors, which are important signaling proteins.[20] A clinical study concluded that Fraser syndrome, an autosomal recessive syndrome that can cause severe deformations, can be caused by a simple mutation in GRIP.[21]

HOMER differs significantly from many known PDZ proteins, including GRIP and PSD-95. Instead of mediating receptors near ion channels, as is the case with GRIP and PSD-95, HOMER is involved in metabotropic glutamate signaling.[7] Another unique aspect of HOMER is that it only contains a single PDZ domain, which mediates interactions between HOMER and type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5).[13] The single GLGF repeat on HOMER binds amino acids on the C-terminus of mGluR5. HOMER expression is measured at high levels during embryologic stages in rats, suggesting an important developmental function.[13]

Human[edit]

There are roughly 260 human PDZ domains. However, several proteins contain multiple PDZ domains, so the number of unique PDZ-containing proteins is closer to 180. Listed below are some of the better studied members of this family:

Below is a complete list:

AAG12; AHNAK; AHNAK2; AIP1; ALP; APBA1; APBA2; APBA3; ARHGAP21; ARHGAP23; ARHGEF11; ARHGEF12; CARD10; CARD11; CARD14; CASK; CLP-36; CNKSR2; CNKSR3; CRTAM; DFNB31; DLG1; DLG2; DLG3; DLG4; DLG5; DVL1; DVL1L1; DVL2; DVL3; ERBB2IP; FRMPD1; FRMPD2; FRMPD2L1; FRMPD3; FRMPD4; GIPC1; GIPC2; GIPC3; GOPC; GRASP; GRIP1; GRIP2; HTRA1; HTRA2; HTRA3; HTRA4; IL16; INADL; KIAA1849; LDB3; LIMK1; LIMK2; LIN7A; LIN7B; LIN7C; LMO7; LNX1; LNX2; LRRC7; MAGI1; MAGI2; MAGI3; MAGIX; MAST1; MAST2; MAST3; MAST4; MCSP; MLLT4; MPDZ; MPP1; MPP2; MPP3; MPP4; MPP5; MPP6; MPP7; MYO18A;  ;NOS1; PARD3; PARD3B; PARD6A; PARD6B; PARD6G; PDLIM1; PDLIM2; PDLIM3; PDLIM4; PDLIM5; PDLIM7; PDZD11; PDZD2; PDZD3; PDZD4; PDZD5A; PDZD7; PDZD8; PDZK1; PDZRN3; PDZRN4; PICK1; PPP1R9A; PPP1R9B; PREX1; PRX; PSCDBP; PTPN13; PTPN3; PTPN4; RAPGEF2; RAPGEF6; RGS12; RGS3; RHPN1; RIL; RIMS1; RIMS2; SCN5A; SCRIB; SDCBP; SDCBP2; SHANK1; SHANK2; SHANK3; SHROOM2; SHROOM3; SHROOM4; SIPA1; SIPA1L1; SIPA1L2; SIPA1L3; SLC9A3R1; SLC9A3R2; SNTA1; SNTB1; SNTB2; SNTG1; SNTG2; SNX27; SPAL2; STXBP4; SYNJ2BP; SYNPO2; SYNPO2L; TAX1BP3; TIAM1; TIAM2; TJP1; TJP2; TJP3; TRPC4; TRPC5; USH1C; WHRN;

Virus[edit]

Tax1

References[edit]

  1. ^ Boxus M, Twizere JC, Legros S, Dewulf JF, Kettmann R, Willems L (2008). "The HTLV-1 Tax interactome". Retrovirology. 5: 76. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-5-76. PMC 2533353free to read. PMID 18702816. 
  2. ^ a b Ponting CP (February 1997). "Evidence for PDZ domains in bacteria, yeast, and plants". Protein Sci. 6 (2): 464–468. doi:10.1002/pro.5560060225. PMC 2143646free to read. PMID 9041651. 
  3. ^ Kennedy MB (September 1995). "Origin of PDZ(DHR,GLGF) domains". Trends Biochem. Sci. 20 (9): 350. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(00)89074-X. PMID 7482701. 
  4. ^ Ponting CP, Phillips C (March 1995). "DHR domains in syntrophins, neuronal NO synthases and other intracellular proteins". Trends Biochem. Sci. 20 (3): 102–103. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(00)88973-2. PMID 7535955. 
  5. ^ a b c Cho KO, Hunt CA, Kennedy MB (Nov 1992). "The rat brain postsynaptic density fraction contains a homolog of the Drosophila discs-large tumor suppressor protein". Neuron. 9 (5): 929–42. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(92)90245-9. PMID 1419001. 
  6. ^ Bu Z, Callaway DJ (2011). "Proteins MOVE! Protein dynamics and long-range allostery in cell signaling". Adv in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology. Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology. 83: 163–221. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-381262-9.00005-7. ISBN 9780123812629. PMID 21570668. 
  7. ^ a b Ranganathan R, Ross E (1997). "PDZ domain proteins: scaffolds for signaling complexes". Curr Biol. 7 (12): R770–R773. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(06)00401-5. PMID 9382826. 
  8. ^ Cowburn D (December 1997). "Peptide recognition by PTB and PDZ domains". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 7 (6): 835–838. doi:10.1016/S0959-440X(97)80155-8. PMID 9434904. 
  9. ^ Liu, Jie; Li, Juan; Ren, Yu; Liu, Peijun (2014-01-01). "DLG5 in cell polarity maintenance and cancer development". International Journal of Biological Sciences. 10 (5): 543–549. doi:10.7150/ijbs.8888. ISSN 1449-2288. PMC 4046881free to read. PMID 24910533. 
  10. ^ Kennedy, M. B. (1995-09-01). "Origin of PDZ (DHR, GLGF) domains". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 20 (9): 350. doi:10.1016/s0968-0004(00)89074-x. ISSN 0968-0004. PMID 7482701. 
  11. ^ Ponting, Christopher P.; Phillips, Christopher (1995-03-01). "DHR domains in syntrophins, neuronal NO synthases and other intracellular proteins". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 20 (3): 102–103. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(00)88973-2. 
  12. ^ a b c Bristol, University of. "Bristol University | Centre for Synaptic Plasticity | AMPAR interactors". www.bristol.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-03. 
  13. ^ a b c Brakeman, P. R.; Lanahan, A. A.; O'Brien, R.; Roche, K.; Barnes, C. A.; Huganir, R. L.; Worley, P. F. (1997-03-20). "Homer: a protein that selectively binds metabotropic glutamate receptors". Nature. 386 (6622): 284–288. doi:10.1038/386284a0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 9069287. 
  14. ^ a b Doyle, D. A.; Lee, A.; Lewis, J.; Kim, E.; Sheng, M.; MacKinnon, R. (1996-06-28). "Crystal structures of a complexed and peptide-free membrane protein-binding domain: molecular basis of peptide recognition by PDZ". Cell. 85 (7): 1067–1076. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81307-0. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 8674113. 
  15. ^ Hopper, Rachel; Lancaster, Barrie; Garthwaite, John (2004-04-01). "On the regulation of NMDA receptors by nitric oxide". The European Journal of Neuroscience. 19 (7): 1675–1682. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03306.x. ISSN 0953-816X. PMID 15078541. 
  16. ^ a b Cao, T. T.; Deacon, H. W.; Reczek, D.; Bretscher, A.; von Zastrow, M. (1999-09-16). "A kinase-regulated PDZ-domain interaction controls endocytic sorting of the beta2-adrenergic receptor". Nature. 401 (6750): 286–290. doi:10.1038/45816. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 10499588. 
  17. ^ Lee HJ, Zheng JJ (2010). "PDZ domains and their binding partners: structure, specificity, and modification". Cell Commun. Signal. 8: 8. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-8-8. PMC 2891790free to read. PMID 20509869. 
  18. ^ a b c Niethammer, M.; Valtschanoff, J. G.; Kapoor, T. M.; Allison, D. W.; Weinberg, R. J.; Craig, A. M.; Sheng, M. (1998-04-01). "CRIPT, a novel postsynaptic protein that binds to the third PDZ domain of PSD-95/SAP90". Neuron. 20 (4): 693–707. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273(00)81009-0. ISSN 0896-6273. PMID 9581762. 
  19. ^ Dong, H.; O'Brien, R. J.; Fung, E. T.; Lanahan, A. A.; Worley, P. F.; Huganir, R. L. (1997-03-20). "GRIP: a synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein that interacts with AMPA receptors". Nature. 386 (6622): 279–284. doi:10.1038/386279a0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 9069286. 
  20. ^ Torres, Richard; Firestein, Bonnie L; Dong, Hualing; Staudinger, Jeff; Olson, Eric N; Huganir, Richard L; Bredt, David S; Gale, Nicholas W; Yancopoulos, George D (1998-12-01). "PDZ Proteins Bind, Cluster, and Synaptically Colocalize with Eph Receptors and Their Ephrin Ligands". Neuron. 21 (6): 1453–1463. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80663-7. 
  21. ^ Vogel, Maartje J.; van Zon, Patrick; Brueton, Louise; Gijzen, Marleen; van Tuil, Marc C.; Cox, Phillip; Schanze, Denny; Kariminejad, Ariana; Ghaderi-Sohi, Siavash (2012-05-01). "Mutations in GRIP1 cause Fraser syndrome". Journal of Medical Genetics. 49 (5): 303–306. doi:10.1136/jmedgenet-2011-100590. ISSN 1468-6244. PMID 22510445. 
  22. ^ Jemth P, Gianni S (July 2007). "PDZ domains: folding and binding". Biochemistry. 46 (30): 8701–8708. doi:10.1021/bi7008618. PMID 17620015. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Ponting CP, Phillips C, Davies KE, Blake DJ (June 1997). "PDZ domains: targeting signalling molecules to sub-membranous sites". BioEssays. 19 (6): 469–479. doi:10.1002/bies.950190606. PMID 9204764. 
  • Doyle DA, Lee A, Lewis J, Kim E, Sheng M, MacKinnon R (June 1996). "Crystal structures of a complexed and peptide-free membrane protein-binding domain: molecular basis of peptide recognition by PDZ". Cell. 85 (7): 1067–1076. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81307-0. PMID 8674113. 

External links[edit]