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Electrochromic switching in two PEDOT:PSS electrodes connected by a piece of PhastGel SDS buffer strips. The electrodes were reversibly and repeatedly oxidized and reduced by switching the polarity of an applied 1 V potential. This was observed by a color change between dark (reduced PEDOT) and light (oxidized PEDOT) blue within the electrodes, demonstrating the transport of ions between and into the electrodes.[1]

PEDOT:PSS or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate is a polymer mixture of two ionomers. One component in this mixture is made up of sodium polystyrene sulfonate which is a sulfonated polystyrene. Part of the sulfonyl groups are deprotonated and carry a negative charge. The other component poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or PEDOT is a conjugated polymer and carries positive charges and is based on polythiophene. Together the charged macromolecules form a macromolecular salt.[2]

It is used as a transparent, conductive polymer with high ductility in different applications. For example, AGFA coats 200 million photographic films per year[citation needed] with a thin, extensively-stretched layer of virtually transparent and colorless PEDOT:PSS as an antistatic agent to prevent electrostatic discharges during production and normal film use, independent of humidity conditions, and as electrolyte in polymer electrolytic capacitors.

If organic compounds, including high boiling solvents like methylpyrrolidone, dimethyl sulfoxide, sorbitol, ionic liquids and surfactants, are added conductivity increases by many orders of magnitude.[3][4][5][6][7] This makes it also suitable as a transparent electrode, for example in touchscreens, organic light-emitting diodes,[8] flexible organic solar cells[9][10] and electronic paper to replace the traditionally used indium tin oxide (ITO). Owing to the high conductivity (up to 4600 S/cm),[11] it can be used as a cathode material in capacitors replacing manganese dioxide or liquid electrolytes. It is also used in organic electrochemical transistors.

The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS can also be significantly improved by a post-treatment with various compounds, such as ethylene glycol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), salts, zwitterions, cosolvents, acids, alcohols, phenol, geminal diols and amphiphilic fluoro- compounds.[12][13][14][15] This conductivity is comparable to that of ITO, the popular transparent electrode material, and it can triple that of ITO after a network of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires is embedded into PEDOT:PSS[16] and used for flexible organic devices.[17]

This compound is generally applied as a dispersion of gelled particles in water. A conductive layer on glass is obtained by spreading a layer of the dispersion on the surface usually by spin coating and driving out the water by heat. Special PEDOT:PSS inks and formulations were developed for different coating and printing processes. Water-based PEDOT:PSS inks are mainly used in slot die coating, flexography, rotogravure and inkjet printing. If a high viscous paste and slow drying is required like in screen-printing processes PEDOT:PSS can also be supplied in high boiling solvents like propanediol. Dry PEDOT:PSS pellets can be produced with a freeze drying method which are redispersable in water and different solvents, for example ethanol to increase drying speed during printing. Finally, to overcome degradation to ultraviolet light and high temperature or humidity conditions PEDOT:PSS UV-stabilizers are available.


PEDOT:PSS can be prepared by mixing an aqueous solution of PSS with EDOT monomer, and to the resulting mixture, a solution of sodium persulfate and iron (III) sulfate.[18][19]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Bengtsson K, Nilsson S, Robinson N (2014). "Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis". PLoS ONE. 9 (2): e89416. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089416. PMC 3929695Freely accessible. PMID 24586761. 
  2. ^ Groenendaal, L.; Jonas, F.; Freitag, D.; Pielartzik, H.; Reynolds, J. R. (2000). "Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and Its Derivatives: Past, Present, and Future". Advanced Materials. 12 (7): 481–494. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(200004)12:7<481::AID-ADMA481>3.0.CO;2-C. 
  3. ^ Kim, Yong Hyun; Sachse, Christoph; Machala, Michael L.; May, Christian; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl (2011-03-22). "Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Electrode with Optimized Solvent and Thermal Post-Treatment for ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells". Advanced Functional Materials. 21 (6): 1076–1081. doi:10.1002/adfm.201002290. ISSN 1616-3028. 
  4. ^ Kim, J. Y.; Jung, J. H.; Lee, D. E.; Joo, J. (2002). "Enhancement of electrical conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(4-styrenesulfonate) by a change of solvents". Synthetic Metals. 126 (2–3): 311–316. doi:10.1016/S0379-6779(01)00576-8. 
  5. ^ Ouyang, J.; Xu, Q.; Chu, C. W.; Yang, Y.; Li, G.; Shinar, J. (2004). "On the mechanism of conductivity enhancement in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) film through solvent treatment". Polymer. 45 (25): 8443–8450. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2004.10.001. 
  6. ^ Döbbelin, M.; Marcilla, R.; Salsamendi, M.; Pozo-Gonzalo, C.; Carrasco, P. M.; Pomposo, J. A.; Mecerreyes, D. (2007). "Influence of Ionic Liquids on the Electrical Conductivity and Morphology of PEDOT:PSS Films". Chemistry of Materials. 19 (9): 2147–2149. doi:10.1021/cm070398z. 
  7. ^ Xia, Y; Ouyang, J (2010). "Significant conductivity enhancement of conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly(styrenesulfonate) films through a treatment with organic carboxylic acids and inorganic acids". ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2 (2): 474–83. doi:10.1021/am900708x. PMID 20356194. 
  8. ^ Kim, Yong Hyun; Lee, Jonghee; Hofmann, Simone; Gather, Malte C.; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl (2013-08-12). "Achieving High Efficiency and Improved Stability in ITO-Free Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Conductive Polymer Electrodes". Advanced Functional Materials. 23 (30): 3763–3769. doi:10.1002/adfm.201203449. ISSN 1616-3028. 
  9. ^ Park, Yoonseok; Berger, Jana; Tang, Zheng; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Lasagni, Andrés Fabián; Vandewal, Koen; Leo, Karl (2016-08-29). "Flexible, light trapping substrates for organic photovoltaics". Applied Physics Letters. 109 (9): 093301. doi:10.1063/1.4962206. ISSN 0003-6951. 
  10. ^ Park, Yoonseok; Nehm, Frederik; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Vandewal, Koen; Leo, Karl (2016-05-16). "Optical display film as flexible and light trapping substrate for organic photovoltaics". Optics Express. 24 (10). doi:10.1364/OE.24.00A974. ISSN 1094-4087. 
  11. ^ Worfolk, Brian J.; Andrews, Sean C.; Park, Steve; Reinspach, Julia; Liu, Nan; Toney, Michael F.; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Bao, Zhenan (2015-11-17). "Ultrahigh electrical conductivity in solution-sheared polymeric transparent films". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (46): 14138–14143. doi:10.1073/pnas.1509958112. PMC 4655535Freely accessible. PMID 26515096. 
  12. ^ Ouyang, J.; Chu, C. -W.; Chen, F. -C.; Xu, Q.; Yang, Y. (2005). "High-Conductivity Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrene sulfonate) Film and Its Application in Polymer Optoelectronic Devices". Advanced Functional Materials. 15 (2): 203–208. doi:10.1002/adfm.200400016. 
  13. ^ Saghaei, Jaber; Fallahzadeh, Ali; Saghaei, Tayebeh (September 2015). "ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive phenol-treated PEDOT:PSS anodes". Organic Electronics. 24: 188–194. doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2015.06.002. 
  14. ^ Fallahzadeh, Ali; Saghaei, Jaber; Yousefi, Mohammad Hassan (30 November 2014). "Effect of alcohol vapor treatment on electrical and optical properties of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) films for indium tin oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes". Applied Surface Science. 320: 895–900. doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.09.143. 
  15. ^ Saghaei, Jaber; Fallahzadeh, Ali; Yousefi, Mohammad Hassan (April 2015). "Improvement of electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS films by 2-Methylimidazole post treatment". Organic Electronics. 19: 70–75. doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2015.01.026. 
  16. ^ Stapleton, A. J.; Yambem, S. D.; Johns, A. H.; Afre, R. A.; Ellis, A. V.; Shapter, J. G.; Andersson, G. G.; Quinton, J. S.; Burn, P. L.; Meredith, P.; Lewis, D. A. (2015). "Planar silver nanowire, carbon nanotube and PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite transparent electrodes". Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. 16 (2): 025002. doi:10.1088/1468-6996/16/2/025002. PMC 5036479Freely accessible. PMID 27877771. 
  17. ^ Park, Yoonseok; Bormann, Ludwig; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Vandewal, Koen; Leo, Karl (2016-09-01). "Efficient flexible organic photovoltaics using silver nanowires and polymer based transparent electrodes". Organic Electronics. 36: 68–72. doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2016.05.032. 
  18. ^ Geoghegan, Mark; Hadziioannou, Georges (2013). Polymer electronics (First edition. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 125. ISBN 9780199533824. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  19. ^ Yoo, Dohyuk; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Jung Hyun (26 April 2014). "Direct synthesis of highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/graphene composites and their applications in energy harvesting systems" (PDF). Nano Research. 7 (5): 717–730. doi:10.1007/s12274-014-0433-z. Retrieved 31 August 2017.