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PFC CSKA Sofia

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PFC CSKA Sofia
CSKA Sofia anniversary emblem
Full name Professional Football Club CSKA
Nickname(s) Червените (The Reds)
Армейците (The Armymen)
Founded 5 May 1948; 70 years ago (1948-05-05)
Ground Balgarska Armia Stadium, Sofia
Capacity 22,995 (18,495 seats)
Shareholders Grisha Ganchev (38.5%)
Yulian Indzhov (38.5%)
Hristo Stoichkov (20.0%)
Manager Nestor El Maestro
League First League
2017–18 First League, 2nd
Website Club website
Current season
USC CSKA Sofia
CSKA 99-05.png
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Football Volleyball Basketball
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Hockey Tennis Handball
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Athletics Gymnastics Chess
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Boxing Weightlifting Cycling
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Shooting Ski Biathlon

CSKA (Bulgarian: ЦСКА) is a Bulgarian professional association football club based in Sofia and currently competing in the country's premier football competition, the First League. CSKA is an abbreviation for Central Sports Club of the Army (Bulgarian: Централен Спортен Клуб на Армията).

Officially established on 5 May 1948, CSKA's roots date back to an army officers' club founded in 1923.[1] The club has won a record 31 Bulgarian titles and 20 Bulgarian Cups.[2][3] Internationally, CSKA are the only Bulgarian club to have reached the semi-finals of the European Cup, which they have done twice, and they have also reached the semi-final of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup once.[4]

CSKA's home colors are red and white and its home ground is the Bulgarian Army Stadium. The club's biggest rivals are Levski Sofia and matches between the two sides are known as "The Eternal Derby of Bulgaria".

History

1923–1948

In October 1923, football clubs Athletic Sofia and Slava Sofia merged to form AS-23, short for Officer's Sports Club Athletic Slava 1923, under the patronage of the Ministry of War, which provided the equipment. In 1931, AS-23 won their first Bulgarian championship and The Tsar's Cup, followed by another Tsar's Cup in 1941. The club's stadium (completed in 1938) was named Athletic Park and was situated where the Bulgarian Army Stadium now resides.

On 9 November 1944, with the support of Mihail Mihaylov, an accountant at the Ministry of War and a patron of Shipka Sofia, a unifying agreement was signed, merging AS-23, Shipka, and Spartak (Poduene) to form Chavdar Sofia. Gen. Vladimir Stoychev from AS-23, who at the time was fighting on the front in World War II, was appointed (by telegram) as the new club's chairman. Lawyer Ivan Bashev, a future Bulgarian foreign minister, was appointed club secretary and the person in charge of football.[5]

1948–1962

The unifying protocol of Chavdar Sofia (1944)

With the help of Mihail Mihaylov again, in February 1948, Chavdar became the departmental club of the Central House of the Troops ("Centralnia Dom na Voiskata") and took on the name of CDV. Looking for ways to stop the club's decline, CDV's administrators sought to merge it with another club. In May 1948, an agreement was reached between CDV and Septemvri Sofia (which had already earned a place in the play-offs) for uniting the clubs under the name "Septemvri pri CDV" (Septemvri at CDV). The contract was signed on 5 May 1948, which is officially considered the club's date of foundation.

The club's played its first official match on 19 May 1948 against Slavia Sofia at Yunak Stadium, a 1–1 draw. Septemvri pri CDV eliminated Aprilov (Gabrovo) and Spartak Varna en route to the final, where it faced Levski Sofia, losing 1–2 in the first leg. The decisive second match occurred on 9 September 1948. Septemvri pri CDV's lineup consisted of: Stefan Gerenski, Borislav Futekov, Manol Manolov, Dimitar Cvetkov, Nikola Aleksiev, Nako Chakmakov (captain), Dimitar Milanov, Stoyne Minev, Stefan Bozhkov, Nikola Bozhilov and Kiril Bogdanov. The score was 3–3 on aggregate, as Septemvri pri CDV led 2–1 near the end of regulation time, when a last-minute goal by Nako Chakmakov gave the club its first ever title.

In 1950, the word "Narodna" ("Peoples" in English) was added to the name of the Central House of the Troops, changing it to Central House of the People's Troops ("Centralen Dom na Narodnata Voiska" in English), or C.D.N.V. for short, also effectively changing the club's name. The following two years, C.D.N.V. won two consecutive titles. In 1951, the Army club clinched their first double. In 1953, the club was again renamed by the authorities, this time to Otbor na Sofiyskiya Garnizon ("Team of the Sofia Garrison"), and most of the key players were illegally transferred out. The title was lost undeservedly.

The following year, the club was renamed to CDNA ('Central House of the People's Army), and the years between 1954 and 1962 marked one of the most successful periods for the Reds, who won nine consecutive titles (an unprecedented achievement in Bulgarian football to this day) and, in 1956, took part in the second installment of the newly created European Cup competition.[6]

1960s

In 1962, CDNA was united with DSO Cherveno Zname to form CSKA Cherveno Zname ("CSKA Red Flag"). The Central House of the People's Troops ceased its affiliation with the club, which was taken over by the Ministry of People's Defense. CSKA finished third after Spartak Plovdiv and Botev Plovdiv in the 1962–63 season. The following season, CSKA had its worst performance in the Bulgarian championship to date, finishing 11th in the final table, only three points from relegation. This led to the sacking of legendary coach Krum Milev after 16 years. CSKA did not recapture the title until 1966. However, during the 1966–67 season, CSKA recorded its first major international achievement after reaching the semi-finals of the European Cup for the first time, where they faced Italian giants Internazionale. After two hard-fought 1–1 draws, a third decisive match was played, which CSKA lost 0–1.[7]

The next two seasons were unmemorable for the Army Men, as they finished in fifth and second place respectively. In 1968, CSKA underwent another merger, joining with Septemvri Sofia and taking the name CSKA Septemvriysko Zname ("CSKA September Flag"). The club clinched the title in 1969 with the help of the recent acquisition of Petar Zhekov, who would go on to become the top Bulgarian goalscorer of all time – a record he still holds today.

1970s

CSKA Sofia in 1973

The 1970s are widely considered the period when CSKA made its name on the European stage. The club began the decade modestly, claiming second place domestically and reaching the round of 16 in 1970–71 European Cup Winners' Cup, where they fell to English side Chelsea 0–2 on aggregate.[8] However, from 1971 to 1973, CSKA won three consecutive titles and delivered one of the biggest surprises in European football when it eliminated reigning three-time European champion Ajax – considered the finest team of all-time – 2–1 on aggregate in the 1973–74 European Cup.[9] They then faced German champions Bayern Munich in the quarter-finals. After losing 1–4 in the first leg in Munich, CSKA bowed out of the competition following a 2–1 win at home.[10] Between 1975 and 1979, the club won two more domestic titles.

1980s

The 1980–81 season was again a memorable one for CSKA Sofia, winning the Bulgarian title once more and twice beating European champion Nottingham Forest, both times with 1–0 scorelines, before being stopped by the future European champions Liverpool with a 6–1 defeat on aggregate in the quarter-finals of the European Cup.[11][12] The next season, CSKA reached their second-straight European Cup semi-final, eliminating Spanish champions Real Sociedad, Glentoran and Liverpool after losing 0–1 in England and winning 2–0 at home with two goals by Stoycho Mladenov. In the semi-final, the Reds again faced Bayern Munich. The first leg was held in Sofia and started with a full dominance over Bayern, as by the 16th minute, CSKA were leading 3–0 in front of 85,000 jubilant spectators who saw the European final in their dreams. But the final result was 4–3 for CSKA. In Munich, the club suffered a 4–0 defeat, ending what is still the deepest run by a Bulgarian side in the European Cup or UEFA Champions League.[13] In the domestic league, CSKA did not let go of the title until the 1984–85 season, where they finished second behind arch-rivals Levski Sofia, but still managed to reach the Bulgarian Cup final.

On 18 June 1985, the final for the Bulgarian Cup was held at the Vasil Levski National Stadium between CSKA and Levski Sofia. The match was marked by many questionable referee decisions and saw several brutal fights, including an assault on a referee by some of Levski's players. CSKA won the match 2–1, even though they had missed a penalty when the score was 2–0. By decree of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party, both teams were disbanded and re-founded under new management. CSKA was renamed Sredets while Levski was renamed Vitosha. Several players were banned from participating in official matches for varying periods of time, including Hristo Stoichkov and Kostadin Yanchev from CSKA. One year later, the committee's decision was reversed and the players were reinstated.

As Sredets, the club finished in fourth place in the 1985–86 season. In 1987, the club was renamed CFKA Sredets ("Central Football Club of the Army Sredets"), and the following three years were marked by a formidable performance, even as Septemvri Sofia ended their 20-year partnership with CFKA in 1988 and became an independent club again. Coached by Dimitar Penev, CFKA won the title in 1987 and 1989 and reached the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup semi-finals against Barcelona in 1989. In reaching this stage, CFKA had eliminated Roda JC after penalty kicks following a 2–1 win at home and a 1–2 loss away. Barcelona, coached by former Dutch international Johan Cruyff, won both matches (4–2 in Barcelona and 2–1 in Sofia) and CFKA were eliminated, but Cruyff did notice the talent of Hristo Stoichkov and decided to bring him to Barcelona the following year, effectively launching Stoichkov's international career.

1990s

The decade, immediately following the fall of communism, brought turbulent changes to Bulgarian football, and the club was not spared. The CSKA name was restored starting with the 1989–90 season and they won the title again. In March 1991, former footballer and administrator Valentin Mihov was chosen as president of CSKA. The club bought some of the most talented Bulgarian players, including Yordan Letchkov, Ivaylo Andonov and Stoycho Stoilov, among others. Meanwhile, the Ministry of Defense concluded their affiliation with the club. Despite the uncertainty and the numerous problems that followed, CSKA won the title again in 1992. They were later eliminated in the first round of the 1992–93 UEFA Champions League by Austria Wien after losing 1–3 in Vienna and winning 3–2 in Sofia.

In the meantime, Valentin Mihov was appointed president of the Bulgarian Football Union and Petar Kalpakchiev was chosen to replace him at the helm of CSKA. However, Kalpakchiev wrangled with the club's administration over their decisions to replace several coaches, one of which was Gjoko Hadžievski, considered to be leading the club in the right direction, and eventually he was fired. The owner of the Multigroup conglomerate, Iliya Pavlov, took over as president, but ultimately his sponsorship proved insufficient to overcome the club's ineffective management. Five coaches were changed in just one season, with Tsvetan Yonchev being coach for just one day. In Europe, CSKA nevertheless defeated Juventus 3–2 in the first round of the 1994–95 UEFA Cup, but the result was annulled by UEFA because of the delayed player-indexing of forward Petar Mihtarski, and Juventus were awarded a 3–0 victory by default. In the second leg in Turin, CSKA succumbed to a 5–1 defeat.

In the summer of 1995, CSKA made a strong selection and eventually the club included half of the youth national football team of Bulgaria. Plamen Markov was appointed head coach, but after a disappointing first half of the season, he was replaced by Georgi Vasilev, who had previously won three Bulgarian titles (one with Etar Veliko Tarnovo and two with Levski Sofia). Vasilev managed to win a double with CSKA for the 1996–97 season, entering the second qualifying round of the Champions League against Steaua București. After a dramatic 3–3 in Bucharest, CSKA fell 0–2 at home. Vasilev was unexpectedly released from the club at the beginning of the second half of the 1997–98 season after a 3–0 win over Spartak Pleven. Coach Petar Zehtinski took his place. That year, the club saw the return of Hristo Stoichkov, Emil Kostadinov and Trifon Ivanov, but the three of them challenged each other for the captain's band. Stoichkov played in only four matches and left CSKA right before the derby with Levski to play for a club in Saudi Arabia. After the end of the season, Ivanov also left the club. CSKA finished the season in third place.

In the summer of 1998, Dimitar Penev took the lead as coach for a second time. CSKA reached the second round of the UEFA Cup, and won the Bulgarian Cup, but disappointed in the domestic league, finishing in fifth place in 1999. That season, the young talents of Martin Petrov, Stilian Petrov, Dimitar Berbatov and Vladimir Manchev started to play a bigger role in the team. There were problems with player-indexing due to some unpaid obligations to Neftochimik. In the domestic championship, CSKA had only 16 players registered for the 1999–2000 season and some un-indexed players took part in official UEFA games. Consequently, at the shareholders meeting at the end of 1999, the club ownership was transferred to businessman Vasil Bozhkov, who became majority owner.

2000s

After the first two fixtures in the spring of 2000, Dimitar Penev was relieved as coach because of the consecutive losses and in his place was appointed Georgi Dimitrov – Jacky, who was later replaced by Spas Dzhevizov. After a 1–1 draw with Pirin at Bulgarian Army Stadium, Dzhevizov handed in his resignation and Aleksandar Stankov took his place. Even though at times CSKA had fallen as far as nine points behind league leaders Levski, the club shortened the difference to only two points before the decisive match for the title at Georgi Asparuhov Stadium. CSKA dominated Levski for most of the match, as Dimitar Berbatov made several serious misses, but a last-minute goal from Georgi Ivanov secured the title for Levski. In the summer of 2000, the Italian Enrico Catuzzi was retained as head coach, who managed to revive the team. However, even though the Army Men played attractive matches under his leadership, Catuzzi resigned in the winter, citing family problems. Aleksandar Stankov was appointed as coach again, but was replaced by Catuzzi again after two losses from Litex for the cup and the championship. The Reds finished second, seven points behind Levski.

To start the 2001–02 season, CSKA's head coach was Asparuh Nikodimov, however he would be fired during the winter break, as CSKA was situated two points behind Levski. He was replaced by another Italian, Luigi Simoni. Simoni failed to make CSKA champions as the club finished third and lost the Bulgarian Cup final to Levski. Simoni left at the end of the season.

In the summer of 2002, former player Stoycho Mladenov was appointed as head coach. With him, the team set a record with 13 consecutive wins in 13 matches in the Bulgarian Championship and CSKA became champions for the first time since 1997. However, Mladenov was fired the following season after losing to Galatasaray in the qualifying rounds of the 2003–04 UEFA Champions League and after giving a less than impressive performance in the first round of the UEFA Cup, where the club lost on penalty kicks to Torpedo Moscow. Immediately after, two of the new arrivals, Léo Lima and Rodrigo Sousa, purchased for 3 million dollars the year before, left the club on the grounds they had not received two monthly salaries. FIFA decided they had the right to leave and that CSKA had to pay them and return the players to their former club, Vasco da Gama. Alexander Stankov was temporarily appointed as head coach until the winter break, when Ferario Spasov officially took over the position. In the end of 2004, Spasov was replaced by Serbian coach Miodrag Ješić, despite the team finishing as champions in the league. Notwithstanding the club's selection issues, CSKA won their record 30th domestic title in 2005.

For the 2005–06 UEFA Champions League, after eliminating Tirana in the second qualifying round, CSKA were paired against reigning European champions Liverpool. The club lost 1–3 in the first match in Sofia, but surprisingly won the second leg 1–0 away at Anfield, though CSKA was still eliminated on aggregate.[14][15] For the UEFA Cup, the Reds eliminated Bayer Leverkusen (with Dimitar Berbatov in the team) with two 1–0 wins and entered the group stage, where they finished fifth with three points from four matches and were eliminated. During the winter break of the 2005–06 season, the club was in first position, seven points ahead of Levski. However, during the spring, CSKA lost the seven-point advantage and ultimately finished second, three points behind Levski. Club president Vasil Bozhkov blamed head coach Miodrag Ješić for the failure to capture the title and fired him, while some supporters blamed Bozhkov instead.

Former CSKA head coach Plamen Markov was appointed in Ješić's place. Bozhkov then announced that he would restrict the finances of the club and that during the upcoming season CSKA will not be aiming at the title. In December 2006, Bozhkov sold the club to Indian steel tycoon and owner of Kremikovtzi AD, Pramod Mittal, brother of ArcelorMittal's Lakshmi Mittal. Former Bulgarian politician Aleksandar Tomov became president of the club and assured the supporters that CSKA would, in fact, be aiming at both the championship and the cup. After two draws in the beginning of the spring half of 2006–07, CSKA found themselves six points behind Levski. As a result, Plamen Markov was replaced by Stoycho Mladenov, who returned to lead the club after three-and-a-half years. CSKA finished second.

During the beginning of the 2007–08 season, CSKA purchased players for more than €2 million. The team was unluckily eliminated from the UEFA Cup in the first round by French side Toulouse after a 96th-minute goal from André-Pierre Gignac in the second leg for 1–1. CSKA was also eliminated from the Bulgarian Cup in the round of 16 by Lokomotiv Plovdiv. The match was engulfed in a scandal because of three CSKA players who at the time were on loan at Lokomotiv (Stoyko Sakaliev, Aleksandar Branekov and Ivan Ivanov). The players had clauses in their contracts restricting them from playing matches against CSKA, but Lokomotiv's management used the players anyway. At the end of the season, the Army Men secured the title in advance, finishing 16 points ahead of second-placed rivals Levski without losing a match from 30 championship matches. On 5 May 2008, the club marked its 60th anniversary with big celebrations organized by the management. An alley of fame was built, comprising the names of the most successful current and former players of CSKA. On 24 May 2008, an exhibition match was played between the current squad and a mixed team of Bulgarian and foreign football stars. The mixed team was coached by former German international Lothar Matthäus, who was a special guest for the anniversary celebrations. The match ended 6–6.

In June 2008, only days after CSKA won its 31st title, UEFA notified the Bulgarian Football Union (BFU) that the club would not receive a license for participating in the 2008–09 UEFA Champions League because of unpaid obligations.[16][17] The BFU then speculated this could also result in CSKA not being able to take part in the domestic championship, effectively turning it into an amateur club. Attempts to arrange a settlement with UEFA proved unsuccessful and CSKA lost its right to compete in the Champions League in favor of runners-up Levski Sofia.[18] The person widely blamed for the crisis was club president Aleksandar Tomov, who resigned shortly after and was arrested and sued for embezzling millions of levs from CSKA and Kremikovtzi AD.[19]

The problems with the license exposed the club's weak financial situation and led to chaos and panic, prompting many of the key players to flee, including head coach Stoycho Mladenov himself, who left saying he was not happy with the fire sale of so many important players. The future of CSKA looked grim, its status as a professional club hanging in the balance. In the midst of the crisis, Dimitar Penev was given the head coach's job for the third time and burdened with the task of saving the club. With almost all senior players gone, Penev was left to rely on members of the CSKA youth squad. Ultimately, CSKA managed to fulfill all licensing requirements set by the BFU and was allowed to compete in A Group.[20] Despite all the difficulties, and to the surprise of the whole football community, Penev's young squad claimed the Bulgarian Supercup in August 2008, overcoming Litex 1–0.[21]

At the beginning of the 2008–09 season, the club managed to strengthen their ranks by signing Bulgarian internationals Zdravko Lazarov and Vladimir Manchev. On 24 December 2008, club owner Pramod Mittal announced he had signed a preliminary contract with a local investor to sell the club.[22] The deal was finalized on 6 March 2009, and the ownership of the club was transferred to Titan Sport EAD, a subsidiary of Bulgarian waste management company Titan AS.[23] Meanwhile, coach Dimitar Penev was replaced by his nephew, Lyuboslav Penev, who set aggressive goals for the club.[24] After having led the league for most of the season, CSKA finished the championship in second place, one point behind arch-rivals Levski.

CSKA Sofia in UEFA Europa League 2011

In 2009, CSKA earned a place in the 2009–10 UEFA Europa League's group stage after defeating Dynamo Moscow in the qualifying round and drew Roma, Basel and Fulham in the group stage.[25] The first match was against Fulham in Sofia, where CSKA took the lead thanks to a beautiful goal by newly signed from Chernomoretz Burgas Brazilian Michel Platini. However, a simple goalkeeper mistake at the end of the match allowed Fulham to score, ending the game in a 1–1 draw. Despite the strong start, CSKA did not manage to earn any more points in the group stage and exited the competition after finishing fourth in its group.[26] In November 2009, coach Luboslav Penev threatened to resign following a squabble with the club's management after they had reversed his decision to reprimand several players for disciplinary reasons, but decided to carry on with the job. Their disagreements eventually boiled over in January 2010 and the board relieved Penev of the position.[27] Reports in the press pointed to former CSKA coach Miodrag Ješić as a possible replacement, but even though Ješić expressed a desire to come back to CSKA, his current contract with Libyan club Alittihad Tripoli ruled him out.[28] On 17 January, the club retained Romanian specialist Ioan Andone as coach.[29] Andone brought two Romanian players with him and set out to overhaul the team.[30] However, over the next six matches, CSKA won only two matches, drew arch-rivals Levski 0–0 and lost second place to Lokomotiv Sofia. On 30 March, after two months on the job, Andone resigned, citing family reasons.[31] Former CSKA defender Adalbert Zafirov was put in his place.[32] At the same time, the club turned to Dimitar Penev again, naming him supervisor of the coaching staff.[33] Despite the tumultuous second half of the season, CSKA managed to finish at second place in the table, behind champions Litex, and prepared to enter the third qualifying round of the 2010–11 UEFA Europa League.[34]

2010s

In the summer of 2010, the club hired Pavel Dochev as head coach, but after a string of unsatisfactory results, including a 0–1 loss to Levski Sofia and a 1–2 loss to Chernomorets Burgas, he was fired. His place was taken by the relatively unknown Macedonian manager Gjore Jovanovski, who kept his job for just three months before being replaced by his assistant Milen Radukanov. Under Radukanov, CSKA won the 2011 Bulgarian Cup and the Bulgarian SuperCup, beating league champions Litex Lovech 3–1.

CSKA started 2011–12 with eight-straight league victories, but after a 1–2 defeat against Slavia Sofia and a 0–0 draw against Cherno More Varna, Radukanov was unexpectedly fired by chairman Dimitar Borisov. Dimitar Penev was appointed as a temporary manager with Adalbert Zafirov as his assistant. In the spring, Stoycho Mladenov was again hired as head coach, and he led the club to a second-place league finish, a single point behind champions Ludogorets Razgrad after losing on the final day of the season.

2012–2013

CSKA began the season by being surprisingly eliminated from international football by Slovenian football dwarf Mura 05. While the first leg in Slovenia ended in a 0–0 draw, a 1–1 tie at home eliminated the Reds from the 2012–13 UEFA Europa League in the second qualifying round. The start of the domestic championship was unimpressive as well –- a 0–1 loss to Litex, in which the club had no right to use its new signings due to administrative restrictions. However, in the middle of the autumn half of the season, CSKA achieved some significant wins, defeating Levski 1–0 in the Eternal Derby and eliminating Ludogorets Razgrad in the round of 32 of the Bulgarian Cup.

In late December 2012, head coach Stoycho Mladenov was abruptly fired by the club owners for "disciplinary" reasons, and Miodrag Ješić was appointed in his place. During the winter transfer window, CSKA made several signings, such as Bulgarian internationals Martin Kamburov and Spas Delev, in addition to South-American players Marcinho and Ignacio Varela. After managing the team for only two matches in the spring, Ješić was sacked and replaced by fan favourite Milen Radukanov, with whom the club managed to finish the season with the bronze medals.

In June 2013, former FIFA Ballon d'Or winner Hristo Stoichkov was released from Litex Lovech to replace Radukanov on the bench, but the poor financial condition of the club forced him to leave shortly after his arrival without even having signed a contract. Most of the key players left CSKA while speculations about the club's bankruptcy circled in the media.[35] After the serious financial problems led to CSKA's withdrawal from the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League, igniting multiple fan protests, the club was ultimately declared for sale. On 10 July 2013, it was officially purchased by the Red Champions Group, a union of businessmen and club legends. The leader of the group was Aleksandar Tomov, former club president widely blamed for CSKA's financial crisis in 2008. Stoycho Mladenov was hired back as manager by the new owners.

2013–2014

The club made several major signings for the new season, bringing in former team captains Valentin Iliev, Emil Gargorov and Todor Yanchev. Algeria's national goalkeeper Rais M'Bolhi and ex-Premier League stars Mamady Sidibe and Martin Petrov were also brought on board. On 19 October 2013, the reborn CSKA crushed city rivals Levski 3–0 and were given the nickname The Phoenixes. By the end of the season, CSKA smashed Levski three more times and finished in second place, behind Ludogorets Razgrad.

On 21 March 2014, as part of the plan to reduce debt and make the club's finances more transparent, CSKA became the first club from Eastern Europe to be publicly traded by listing itself on the Bulgarian Stock Exchange.[36][37]

2014–2015

Before the start of the new season, a few key players were no longer part of the club. Goalkeeper Raïs M'Bolhi was transferred to Major League Soccer (MLS) side Philadelphia Union after an impressive performance at the 2014 FIFA World Cup; young talent Ivaylo Chochev joined Palermo; club legends Martin Petrov and Todor Yanchev retired; and the team's leading scorer, Emil Gargorov, left due to conflict with the managing board. CSKA were surprisingly eliminated by the Moldovan side Zimbru Chișinău in the 2014–15 UEFA Europa League's second qualifying round, but performed well in the domestic league during the first half of the season, beating rivals Levski twice more and being on the top of the table ahead of Ludogorets before the winter break. However, after the season resumed, CSKA lost three-straight matches without scoring a goal, prompting the resignation of head coach Stoycho Mladenov. Former team captain and youth team's coach Galin Ivanov was appointed as the new head coach,[38] but after five more goalless matches, he was replaced by European football legend Lyuboslav Penev, a move widely praised by fans.[39]

On 2 April, CSKA club president Aleksandar Tomov transferred his controlling block of shares to Milko Georgiev and Borislav Lazarov, with club supporters intending to find a new owner and major sponsors capable of paying off the club's numerous debts.[40] On 24 April, it was officially announced the club's new controlling owner would be the corporation Finance Marketing Company Ltd.[41] CSKA finished the season in fifth position, but due to the unfunded debts, the BFU refused to issue the club a license for A Group for the upcoming season, instead sending the club to the South-Western V group, the third tier of Bulgarian football.[42]

(2015–)

On 24 June 2015, businessman Grisha Ganchev announced he would be the new owner of CSKA. Club legend Plamen Markov and famous former footballer Hristo Yanev were appointed as sports director and head coach respectively.[43] Yanev claimed he wants to form a squad consisting entirely of Bulgarian players.

On 25 May 2016, and as amateurs, CSKA Sofia won the 2015–16 Bulgarian Cup, becoming the first third division club to record such an achievement. In the final, CSKA defeated Montana 1–0 to lift the cup for the 20th time in club history.[44]

On 27 May 2016, the legal firm that represented PFC Chavdar Etropole, "PFC Chavdar EAD", was renamed to "PFC CSKA-1948 AD".[45] On 6 June 2016, the legal firm which representedb Litex Lovech, "PFC Litex-Lovech AD", was renamed to "PFC CSKA-Sofia EAD",[46] in order for the club to use PFC Litex Lovech's professional license to apply for the reformed First League,[47] with "PFC CSKA-1948 AD" being written in as its owner. The shift was made because the old legal firm, "PFC CSKA AD", was not issued a professional license, and later went bankrupted and ceased operations as of 9 September 2016. Litex Lovech later began playing in the Third League, taking the place of Botev Lukovit.[48]

Following a series of unfavourable results in the championship, Hristo Yanev resigned as head coach. Early next week, the son of former Romanian football legend Anghel Iordănescu, Edward Iordănescu, was appointed as head coach. However, on 27 November, following a 1–1 home draw against Vereya and several poor results, he resigned as head coach.

In September, the club officially announced a sponsorship with the largest telecommunications company in Bulgaria, Mtel. The team also signed a contract with Bulgarian gambling company WinBet.

League positions

First Professional Football League (Bulgaria)Bulgarian V AFGBulgarian A Football Group

Honours

Domestic

Bulgarian A Group:

Bulgarian V Group:

Bulgarian Cup:

Bulgarian Supercup:

Bulgarian Cup – (unofficial tournament)[49]

  • Winners (1 time): 1981

Cup of the Soviet Army[49]

  • Winners (4 times): 1985, 1986, 1989, 1990

European

European Cup / UEFA Champions League

UEFA Cup / UEFA Europa League:

European Cup Winners' Cup / UEFA Cup Winners' Cup

Biggest win in European tournaments:

Other trophies

Thöle-Pokal, Germany:[50]

  • Winners (1): 2003

Arona Cup, Spain:[51]

  • Winners (1): 2004

Martyrs of 17 February Cup, Libya:[52]

  • Winners (1): 2012

European record

As of 16 August 2018

Competition S P W D L GF GA GD
UEFA Champions League / European Cup 25 98 41 16 41 141 145 – 4
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup / European Cup Winners' Cup 5 22 12 0 10 49 29 + 20
UEFA Europa League / UEFA Cup 23 100 33 30 37 129 125 + 4
UEFA Intertoto Cup 1 4 2 1 1 8 4 + 4
Total 54 224 88 47 89 327 303 + 24

Names

CSKA has carried a plethora of names throughout its history. In chronological order, they are as follows:[53]

  • Septemvri pri CDV (Bulgarian: Септември при ЦДВ), September at the Central House of the Troops in 1948 and 1948/49.
  • Narodna Voiska (Bulgarian: Народна Войска), People's Troops in 1950.
  • C.D.N.V. (Bulgarian: Централен Дом на Народната Войска, Ц.Д.Н.В.), Central House of the People's Troops in 1951 and 1952.
  • Otbor na Sofiyskiya Garnizon (Bulgarian: Отбор на Софийския Гарнизон), Team of the Sofia's garrison in 1953.
  • CDNA (Bulgarian: ЦДНА, Централен Дом на Народната Армия), Central House of the People's Army from 1954 and until the 1961/62 season.
  • CSKA "Cherveno zname" (Bulgarian: ЦСКА "Червено знаме"), CSKA "Red Flag" between 1962/63 and 1967/68.
  • CSKA "Septemvriysko zname" (Bulgarian: ЦСКА "Септемврийско знаме"), CSKA "September's flag" between 1968/69 and 1984/85.
  • CFKA "Sredets" (Bulgarian: ЦФКА "Средец"), Central Football Club of the Army "Sredets" from 1985/86 and until 1988/89
  • CSKA (Bulgarian: ЦСКА), CSKA – Central Sports Club of the Army since 1989/90.

Club crest

The main element in the current club crest is the red five-pointed star – symbol of glory and power. Red was the colour of the uniform of the Roman legions, associated with love, freedom and aggression. The six oak leaves above the star symbolise strength, endurance and traditions. CSKA's name and year of foundation (1948) can be seen below the star, between two Bulgarian flags. The circle form of the crest symbolises infinity and eternity.

After CSKA won its 30th national title in 2005, three golden stars were added to the logo.[54] In 2017, to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the club, CSKA introduced an updated chest.[55]

Club anthem

The official anthem of CSKA Sofia is the song "Sartsa cherveni" ("Red hearts") by the famous Bulgarian singer Yordanka Hristova. The song is written in 1999 by composer Evgeni Dimitrov and lyricist Ivaylo Valchev, authors of many of the hits of Ku-Ku Band.[56]

Players

Current squad

As of 5 September 2018

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 Croatia GK Dante Stipica
2 Bulgaria DF Stoycho Atanasov
3 Brazil DF Geferson
4 Bulgaria DF Bozhidar Chorbadzhiyski
5 Bulgaria DF Nikolay Bodurov (captain)
6 Portugal MF Rúben Pinto
7 Guinea-Bissau MF Jorginho (on loan from Saint-Étienne)
8 Ghana MF Edwin Gyasi
9 Brazil FW Maurides
10 Brazil FW Evandro
11 Bulgaria DF Stanislav Manolev (vice-captain)
14 Bulgaria DF Angel Lyaskov
No. Position Player
15 Bulgaria MF Kristiyan Malinov
16 Portugal MF Janio Bikel
17 Brazil MF Henrique
19 Bulgaria FW Kiril Despodov
20 Portugal MF Tiago Rodrigues
22 The Gambia FW Ali Sowe (on loan from Chievo)
23 Bulgaria DF Aleksandar Dyulgerov
25 Cape Verde DF Steven Pereira
26 Bulgaria DF Valentin Antov
27 Slovakia DF Boris Sekulić
30 Lithuania GK Vytautas Černiauskas
For recent transfers, see Transfers summer 2018.

Out on loan

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
12 Bulgaria GK Slavi Petrov (at Litex until 1 January 2019)
18 Bulgaria MF Aleksandar Georgiev (at Septemvri Sofia until 1 January 2019)
21 Bulgaria FW Tonislav Yordanov (at Litex until 1 January 2019)
No. Position Player
22 Bulgaria MF Nikola Kolev (at Etar until 1 January 2019)
28 Bulgaria DF Plamen Galabov (at Etar until 1 January 2019)
33 Bulgaria GK Georgi Kitanov (at Cherno More until 1 January 2019)

Current U19 players with first-team appearances

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
Bulgaria DF Milen Manchev
Bulgaria DF Daniel Yordanov
Bulgaria DF Nikola Borisov
Bulgaria MF Ivan Mitrev
Bulgaria MF Nikolay Yankov
No. Position Player
Bulgaria MF Radoslav Zhivkov
Bulgaria FW Mitko Mitkov
Bulgaria FW Bozhidar Chukanov
Bulgaria FW Radoslav Iliev

Foreign players

Up to five non-EU nationals can be registered and given a squad number for the first team in the Parva Liga however only three can be used during a match day. Those non-EU nationals with European ancestry can claim citizenship from the nation their ancestors came from. If a player does not have European ancestry he can claim Bulgarian citizenship after playing in Bulgaria for five years.

EU Nationals

EU Nationals (Dual citizenship)

Non-EU Nationals

Club officials

Board of directors

Position Name Nationality
Owner Grisha Ganchev Bulgaria
President Hristo Stoichkov Bulgaria
Honorary President Dimitar Penev Bulgaria
Executive Director Milko Georgiev Bulgaria
Financial Director Trifon Popov Bulgaria
Director of Youth Academy Stefan Yaramov Bulgaria
International Relations Stoyan Petkov Bulgaria

Current technical body

Position Name Nationality
Sports Director Plamen Markov Bulgaria
Chief Scout Velizar Dimitrov Bulgaria
Head Coach Nestor El Maestro Serbia
Assistant Coach Nikon El Maestro Serbia
Goalkeeper Coach Ivaylo Petrov Bulgaria
Fitness Coach Thomas Neubert Germany
Fitness Assistant Kiril Dinchev Bulgaria
U19 Coach Ivaylo Stanev Bulgaria
U17 Coach Dobromir Mitov Bulgaria
U16 Coach Sasho Borisov Bulgaria
U15 Coach Hristo Marashliev Bulgaria
U14 Coach Atanas Bornosuzov Bulgaria
Physiotherapist Georgi Peshev Bulgaria
Physiotherapist Ivan Hristov Bulgaria
Physiotherapist Stanimir Stoev Bulgaria
Technical Secretary Orlando Morera Cuba Bulgaria
Press Officer Nasko Atanasov Bulgaria
Administrator Dimitar Vutov Bulgaria
Club Doctor Andrey Miladinov Bulgaria
Housekeeper Dobri Dimov Bulgaria

"Bulgarian Army" stadium

The team's home stadium, the Bulgarian Army Stadium, was completed in 1967 and stands on the same spot as its predecessor, Athletic Park. It is situated in the Borisova gradina park, named after Bulgarian tsar Boris III, in Sofia's city centre. The stadium has four sectors with a total of 22,995 places (18,495 seats),[57][58] of which 2,100 are covered. The pitch length is 105 metres and the width is 68 metres.

The sports complex also include a basketball court and gymnastics facilities, as well as the CSKA Sofia Museum of Glory. The press conference room has 80 seats.

CSKA Sofia Sports Complex

Training base was built in the 1960s and functioned until the early 2000s, before being abandoned until 2015. At present, the complex has three fields with natural grass which are build in 2016, one of them is with floodlight. The base has completely new stand with a seating capacity of 1,500 spectators, 30 bungalows for first-team players and staff, fully restored locker rooms, parking and common parts.

Supporters

CSKA fans in Sector G during the 2005–06 UEFA Cup Group A game versus Hamburger SV

According to many surveys, CSKA Sofia is one of the two most popular clubs in Bulgaria with approximately 190,000 organized supporters in 799 fan clubs around the world, including supporters from United States, Macedonia, Spain, Austria, the United Kingdom, Canada, Italy, Sweden, Greece, Germany and almost every country in which there is a large number of Bulgarians. The official fan club was formed in 1990, which to date is the oldest one in the capital of Bulgaria.[citation needed]

Sector G, the main stand for the ultras of CSKA, is located at the north side of the stadium. Inside the sector, the most influential supporters group is the newly founded ultras group "Ofanziva", which was formed after the unification of several smaller fan clubs. Another strong group is "Animals".

CSKA is also the favourite football club of the current head of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church Patriarch Neophyte.[59]

Bulgarian players

The mentioned players are listed in the alley of fame of the club:[60]

Managerial history

This is a list of the last 10 CSKA Sofia managers:

Name Nat From To Honours
Stoycho Mladenov Bulgaria 5 March 2012 4 January 2013
Miodrag Ješić Serbia 7 January 2013 11 March 2013
Milen Radukanov Bulgaria 11 March 2013 5 June 2013
Hristo Stoichkov Bulgaria 5 June 2013 8 July 2013
Stoycho Mladenov Bulgaria 11 July 2013 20 March 2015
Galin Ivanov Bulgaria 24 March 2015 28 April 2015
Lyuboslav Penev Bulgaria 28 April 2015 31 May 2015
Hristo Yanev Bulgaria 26 June 2015 21 August 2016 1 Bulgarian Cup
1 Bulgarian V AFG Title
Edward Iordănescu Romania 24 August 2016 27 November 2016
Stamen Belchev Bulgaria 28 November 2016 1 May 2018
Hristo Yanev (caretaker) Bulgaria 1 May 2018 20 May 2018
Nestor El Maestro Serbia 6 June 2018 Present

Club kits

The general director Ventsislav Zhivkov presents the new signing Bernardo Tengarrinha. This game is also the introduction of the new equipment, which has a mark LEGEA.

After the merger between Chavdar Sofia and Septemvri Sofia, it was accepted the club's home colour would be red. White became the club's away colour.

In previous years, black was also used, mainly for away or third kits. Other colours of the CSKA kits that can be seen are grey, yellow, orange and green, but only in rarely occasions and only in the colour scheme of the third kits. In the 2009–10 season, and for the first time in club history, CSKA used gold for their away kits.

After the 2011–12 season in which CSKA used equipment of the Italian company Kappa, from June 2012 the club has new kit supplier, Italian company Legea. The team used the new equipment for the first time in the pre-season friendly against Moscow side Torpedo Moscow, ended 1–2. The kits were sample and they were with a different outfit and a different spot where the team badge was placed. The official presentation of the new kits was before the friendly match against Macedonian side Drita on 14 July 2012 (2–0), played at the Bulgarian Army Stadium.

Shirt sponsors and manufacturers

  • Only Domestic Cup matches

UEFA current ranking

UEFA Club Coefficients

Rank Country Team Points
253 Bulgaria Cherno More Varna 3.825
254 Bulgaria Litex Lovech 3.825
255 Bulgaria CSKA Sofia 3.825
256 Azerbaijan Khazar Lankaran 3.825

References

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  2. ^ ЕООД, Български футбол. "Вечна ранглиста на А група " Спечелени точки". bgclubs.eu. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  3. ^ Europe's Club of the Century International Federation of Football History and Statistics. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
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  34. ^ 2009–10 A PFG Retrieved 9 November 2010.
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  54. ^ Емблемата redhearts.eu 10 July 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  55. ^ Юбилейната емблема cska.bg 6 April 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
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  58. ^ www.7sport.net https://web.archive.org/web/20160304122919/http://www.7sport.net/archive7ds/2014/11/17/fb_1footbg/d7337_6.htm. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2017.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  59. ^ Патриарх Неофит е фен на ЦСКА inews.bg Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  60. ^ "Големите легенди надвиха по-младите за идеалния отбор на ЦСКА" (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 29 September 2011. 

External links