The PFKL mRNA sequence includes 55 nucleotides at the 5' and 515 nucleotides at the 3'noncoding regions, as well as 2,337 nucleotides in the coding region, encoding 779 amino acids. This coding region only shares a 68% similarity between PFKL and the muscle-type PFKM.
This 80-kDa protein is one of three subunit types that comprise the five tetrameric PFK isozymes. The liver PFK (PFK-5) contains solely PFKL, while the erythrocyte PFK includes five isozymes composed of different combinations of PFKL and the second subunit type, PFKM. The muscle isozyme (PFK-1) is composed solely of PFKM. These subunits evolved from a common prokaryotic ancestor via gene duplication and mutation events. Generally, the N-terminal of the subunits carries out their catalytic activity while the C-terminal contains allosteric ligand binding sites
This gene encodes one of three protein subunits of PFK, which are expressed and combined to form the tetrameric PFK in a tissue-specific manner. As a PFK subunit, PFKL is involved in catalyzing the phosphorylation of fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. This irreversible reaction serves as the major rate-limiting step of glycolysis. Notably, knockdown of PFKL has been shown to impair glycolysis and promote metabolism via the pentose phosphate pathway. Moreover, PFKL regulates NADPH oxidase activity through the pentose phosphate pathway and according to NADPH levels.
As the erythrocyte PFK is composed of both PFKL and PFKM, this heterogeneic composition is attributed with the differential PFK activity and organ involvement observed in some inherited PFK deficiency states in which myopathy or hemolysis or both can occur, such as glycogenosis type VII (Tarui disease).
Overexpression of PFKL has been associated with Down's syndrome (DS) erythrocytes and fibroblasts and attributed with biochemical changes in PFK that enhance its glycolytic function. Moreover, the PFKL gene maps to the triplicated region of chromosome 21 responsible for DS, indicating that this gene, too, has been triplicated.
Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion. Twenty six tests were carried out on mutant mice and three significant abnormalities were observed. Few homozygousmutant embryos were identified during gestation, and none survived until weaning. The remaining tests were carried out on heterozygous mutant adult mice and a hair follicle degeneration phenotype was observed.
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