PK/PD models

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PK/PD modeling (pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling) (alternatively abbreviated as PKPD[1] or PK-PD[2] modeling) is a technique that combines the two classical pharmacologic disciplines of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.[3] It integrates a pharmacokinetic and a pharmacodynamic model component into one set of mathematical expressions that allows the description of the time course of effect intensity in response to administration of a drug dose.

There are a variety of PK/PD modeling approaches, but there are only five major classes:[4]

  • Direct link PK/PD models
  • Indirect link PK/PD models
  • Indirect response PK/PD models
  • Cell Lifespan models
  • Complex response models


  1. ^ Hahn, J. O.; Khosravi, S.; Dumont, G. A.; Ansermino, J. M. (2011). "Two-stage vs mixed-effect approach to pharmacodynamic modeling of propofol in children using state entropy". Pediatric Anesthesia. 21 (6): 691–698. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9592.2011.03584.x. PMID 21518104. 
  2. ^ Goutelle, S.; Maurin, M.; Rougier, F.; Barbaut, X.; Bourguignon, L.; Ducher, M.; Maire, P. (2008). "The Hill equation: A review of its capabilities in pharmacological modelling". Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology. 22 (6): 633. doi:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2008.00633.x. 
  3. ^ Derendorf, H.; Meibohm, B. (1999). "Modeling of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships: Concepts and perspectives". Pharmaceutical Research. 16 (2): 176–185. doi:10.1023/A:1011907920641. PMID 10100300. 
  4. ^ Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications. Crommelin, Daan; Meibohm, Bernd; Sindelar, Robert. Third Edition. Informa Healthcare USA. 2008.