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Developer(s)Max Bonomi, Giovanni Bussi, Carlo Camilloni, Gareth Tribello
Initial release2009; 11 years ago (2009)
Stable release
2.6.0 / January 27, 2020; 10 months ago (2020-01-27)
Written inC++ (bindings also available for C, Fortran, and Python)
Operating systemLinux, macOS
TypeMolecular dynamics

PLUMED is an open-source library implementing enhanced-sampling algorithms, various free-energy methods, and analysis tools for molecular dynamics simulations. It is designed to be used together with ACEMD, AMBER, DL_POLY, GROMACS, LAMMPS, NAMD, OpenMM, ABIN, CP2K, i-PI, PINY-MD, and Quantum ESPRESSO, but it can also be used to together with analysis and visualization tools VMD, HTMD, and OpenPathSampling.[1][2]

In addition, PLUMED can be used as a standalone tool for analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories. A graphical user interface named METAGUI is available.[3]

Collective variables[edit]

PLUMED offers a large collection of collective variables that serve as descriptions of complex processes that occur during molecular dynamics simulations, for example angles, positions, distances, interaction energies, and total energy.[4]


  1. ^ Bonomi, Massimiliano; Branduardi, Davide; Bussi, Giovanni; Camilloni, Carlo; Provasi, Davide; Raiteri, Paolo; Donadio, Davide; Marinelli, Fabrizio; Pietrucci, Fabio (2009-10-01). "PLUMED: A portable plugin for free-energy calculations with molecular dynamics". Computer Physics Communications. 180 (10): 1961–1972. arXiv:0902.0874. Bibcode:2009CoPhC.180.1961B. doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2009.05.011. ISSN 0010-4655.
  2. ^ Tribello, Gareth A.; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Branduardi, Davide; Camilloni, Carlo; Bussi, Giovanni (2014-02-01). "PLUMED 2: New feathers for an old bird". Computer Physics Communications. 185 (2): 604–613. arXiv:1310.0980. Bibcode:2014CoPhC.185..604T. doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2013.09.018. ISSN 0010-4655.
  3. ^ Biarnés, Xevi; Pietrucci, Fabio; Marinelli, Fabrizio; Laio, Alessandro (2012-01-01). "METAGUI. A VMD interface for analyzing metadynamics and molecular dynamics simulations". Computer Physics Communications. 183 (1): 203–211. Bibcode:2012CoPhC.183..203B. doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2011.08.020. ISSN 0010-4655.
  4. ^ "PLUMED: Introduction". Retrieved 2019-05-23.

External links[edit]