# PRESS statistic

In statistics, the predicted residual error sum of squares (PRESS) statistic is a form of cross-validation used in regression analysis to provide a summary measure of the fit of a model to a sample of observations that were not themselves used to estimate the model. It is calculated as the sums of squares of the prediction residuals for those observations.[1][2][3]

A fitted model having been produced, each observation in turn is removed and the model is refitted using the remaining observations. The out-of-sample predicted value is calculated for the omitted observation in each case, and the PRESS statistic is calculated as the sum of the squares of all the resulting prediction errors:[4]

${\displaystyle \operatorname {PRESS} =\sum _{i=1}^{n}(y_{i}-{\hat {y}}_{i,-i})^{2}}$

Given this procedure, the PRESS statistic can be calculated for a number of candidate model structures for the same dataset, with the lowest values of PRESS indicating the best structures. Models that are over-parameterised (over-fitted) would tend to give small residuals for observations included in the model-fitting but large residuals for observations that are excluded.

1. ^ "Statsoft Electronic Statistics Textbook - Statistics Glossary". Retrieved May 2016. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
4. ^ "R Graphical Manual:Allen's PRESS (Prediction Sum-Of-Squares) statistic, aka P-square". Retrieved February 2018. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)